The use of Cognitive perspective in information

Psychology

Psychology refers to a scientific study of the mind and behavior, both thought and feeling. It involves studying the unconscious and conscious phenomena. Professional researchers in psychology are known as psychologists. Their classifications include behavioral, social, or cognitive scientist. Psychology comprises a myriad of disciplines that can get divided into sub-categories, such as human development, health, social behavior, and cognitive processes. In psychology, an approach refers to a view, belief, or assumption about how humans function, their behavior, and appropriate methods to study them. Cognition consists of the undertakings and processes involved in the attainment, storage, repossession, and processing of knowledge(Sammons, 2005). Alternatively, it may include activitiesor processes that aid people to distinguish, recall, contemplate, classify, reason, and make decisions. Cognition describes the processes and complexes of knowledge itself. Cognitive psychology refers to the study of the mind, perception, attention, memory, and procedure that are involved in receiving, collecting, and retrievinginformation(Sammons, 2005). This research paper will discuss the cognitive perspective and how through it, people perceive, learn, remember, and think about information.

Cognitive perspective views and compares people to computers in the sense that both process information in a similar fashion. The cognitive perspective argues that both the human brain and the computer processing unit, process information, store data, and have an input-output function process(Mayer, 1977, p.4). The cognitive perspective is a scientific perspective, and psychologists in this field believe that the memory is composed of three distinct phases(Mayer, 1977, p.6). The first stage is encoding, where data is received, acknowledged, and then processed(Mayer, 1977, p.10). The second phase is storage or retention of information, and the final stage retrieval of information(Mayer, 1977, p.12). Concerning the three distinct phases, cognitive psychologists are the opposing parties to behaviorists and argue that nothing intervenes between stimuli and response in terms of mental processes. These psychologists are bided behind the principle that mental processes can and should be studied and deliberated scientifically.

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New ways and means of helping people dealing with psychological difficulties can get achieved by cognitive psychologists, other than getting a deeper understanding of the functioning of the human brain(Rajaram, 2011, p.78). An example is recognizing that attention is selective as well as a limited resource; they are then able to think of solutions to lessen the burden of individuals with difficulties in attention, thus enhancing their concentration. Cognitive psychologists help people improve their memories through rehearsal strategy other than just attention. Cognitive psychology states that short term memory is a result of losing attention(Dweck, & Leggett, 1988, p.264). Rehearsals improve the chances of information getting transferred to the stable long term memory. The cognitive perspective is divided into four categories, namely, Experimental Cognitive Psychology, Computational Cognitive Science, Cognitive Neuropsychology, and Cognitive Neuroscience(Dweck, & Leggett, 1988, p.268). Each of the four categories has an emphasison a different facet and provides a distinctivefeature of the basis of the cognitive processes. These Cognitive perspectives have a function to give insights into the functioning of the human mind by providinga generalized ideology of the mechanisms involved in fundamental cognitive processes.

Experimental Cognitive Psychology refers to experiments done on healthy individuals in a tightly controlled laboratory environment(Narayanan, Zane, & Kemmerer, 2011, p.320). Computational Cognitive Science involves creating computer-based models of human cognitive functions, as well as some work on artificial intelligence. Cognitive Neuropsychology refers to the study of people that have suffered brain damage in a bid to determine if at all, there could be a possible cognitive impairment due to the injury. Cognitive Neuroscience involves the use of brain imaging to study cognitive functions through the use of healthy individuals(Schäffner, 2004, p.1260).

Cognitive psychology is goal-oriented and focusses on problem-solving. A perfect example of cognitive psychology is a student that is to undertake a test and which they believe will be tough. To avoid thinking about it, the student ends up distracting themselves. After taking the test, the student fails. A cognitive psychologist would help the student analyze the problem and tell them that their failure results from their initial belief that the test will be tough.

Cognitive approaches have a myriad of characteristics. These beliefs include certainty that psychological anguish is principally the aftermath of a disruption in the cognitive processes, an assurance that there is a shared relationship between client and therapist, and emphasis on altering cognition to produce theanticipatedemotionally and behaviorally modifications.

The modern viewpoints on cognitive psychology commonly discourse cognition as a twofold procedure theory, which further distinguishes the dualistic classes of processing terming them as intuition and reasoning (Bartunek&Moch, 1987, p.484). Intuition, similar to associative thinking, is quick, involuntary, and automatic. Intuition involves getting resilient to emotional ties encompassed in the process of reasoning. Cognitive psychology states that reasoning is hard to manipulate or alter since it is founded on formed habits(Bartunek&Moch, 1987, p.487). The reasoning is slow but more volatile or unpredictable since it results from emotions, attitude, and conscious judgments.

Cognitive perspectives use five research methods to gain insights into the functioning of higher mental processes. They include experiments, case studies, computer simulations, psychobiological studies, and naturalistic observation (Ehlers &Steil, 1995, p.220). They are called research methods in cognitive psychology

Experiments

Experiments involve a researcher manipulating a given variable, to know if it affects another variable. It entails the use of the dependent and independent variables, although not all experiments have the comparative feature(Ehlers &Steil, 1995, p.227). Some researchers prefer within-subject design while others chose the between-subjects design.

Psychobiological Studies

Psychobiological studies refer to an investigation or research conducted to establish a relationship between cognition and the brain’s activities (Ehlers &Steil, 1995, p.232). It gets done through observation of brain performances in brain-damaged individuals, using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and conductingpost mortem studies to compare the brain of healthy individuals with with those with deficits.

Computer simulations

Computer simulations have an objective to replicate some aspects of human functioning. A given cognitive element is run on a computer program. After a successful run and the results or output is same as that of human, then the researcher concludes that the theory is comprehensive and credible.

Naturalistic observation.

Naturalistic observation refers to situations in which the researcher observes individuals in their real-life settings, such as their workplaces or homes.Naturalistic observation gets conducted with or without the knowledge of the persons getting observed. The researcher has to consider some ethical factors whenever they are conducting the research incognito. Invading personal space is illegal in some countries. Some people value and treasure their privacy and can sue the researcher for invading their own space.

Case studies

Cae studies refer to an intensive investigation done on either person of extreme ability or those with some sort of deficits. It may be through extensive or thorough interviews and observations. It seeks to assess the functions of the brain.

Cognitive psychologists believe that expectation and emotion determine behavior. Jean Piaget, founder of Piaget’s theory that people remember things depending on what they already know. He argued that people solved problems bases on their past experiences.

Piaget’s theory

Cognition refers to thinking and memory processes. Cognitive development is the long-standing alterations in those processes. Jean Piaget is the founder of Piaget’s theory, which is the most acknowledged concept of cognitive theory (Smith&DeCoster, 2000, p.108). Piaget fashioned and studied the process of how children progressively become logic thinkers and start to think scientifically(Smith, &DeCoster, 2000, p.110). Piaget’s view emphasized that learning was advanced by the onset of changing concepts to fit into different involvements. The back and forth of these two processes leads to short-term learning and a durable evolving variation.

Through close observation and research on children, Piaget proposed that cognition advanced through distinctive phases right from birth to the completion of puberty. These stages implied a sequence of intellectual patterns and configurations that have three significant characteristics;a tendency to happen in a similar order, not skipping of a single-phase, and each stage being a vital transformation of the preceding stage (Smith, &DeCoster, 2000, p.113). Piaget’s theory comprises of four main cognitive development stages. They include sensorimotor intelligence, Preoperational thinking, Concrete operational thinking, and Formal operational thinking).

Sensorimotor intelligence

Sensorimotor intelligence is the first stage that gets described as that period when children rationally try to think through their senses and motor actions(Paul, Harding, &Mendl, 2005, p.470). These children recurrently touch, look, and even bite and gnaw or chew anything they see or get. These doings, according to Piaget, help these children get an insight into their environment, and are very much essential in the primary cognitive development.

Preoperational thinking

Preoperational thinking refers to the stage where children utilize their newly acquired skills to embody objects in diversified actions or activities. Children cannot conduct their activities in an organized manner. The most common is dramatic acting and acting.

Concrete operational thinking

Concrete operational thinking refers to the stage in which children solve problems. Children operate and conduct themselves systematically and logically. Although basic, their operations are quite advanced.

Formal operational thinking

The formal operational stage refers to when children employ the use of both abstract and hypothetical thinking. They are now very much advanced and operate in presentations or forms.

In conclusion, Psychology is the scientific study of the mind and behavior, both thought and feeling. Psychology is a broad field characterized by varying approaches that are beneficial in diverse circumstances. In the cognitive approach or perspective, the emphasis is on the belief that their thoughts or feeling prejudices an individual’s behavior.

References

Sammons, A. (2005). Approaches to Psychology: The Cognitive Approach, the Basics. Retrieved 2020 February 17 from http://www.psychlotron.org.uk/newresources/approaches/as_aqb_approaches_cognitivebasics.pdf.

Narayanan, V. K., Zane, L. J., & Kemmerer, B. (2011). The cognitive perspective in strategy: An integrative review. Journal of Management, 37(1), 305-351.

Rajaram, S. (2011). Collaboration both hurts and helps memory: A cognitive perspective. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 20(2), 76-81.

Ehlers, A., &Steil, R. (1995). Maintenance of intrusive memories in posttraumatic stress disorder: A cognitive approach. Behavioral and cognitive psychotherapy, 23(3), 217-249.

Bartunek, J. M., &Moch, M. K. (1987). First-order, second-order, and third-order change and organization development interventions: A cognitive approach. The Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 23(4), 483-500.

Schäffner, C. (2004). Metaphor and translation: some implications of a cognitive approach. Journal of pragmatics, 36(7), 1253-1269.

Mayer, R. E. (1977). Technical Report Series In learning and Cognition: An introduction to human cognition and learning. Glenview, IL: Scott, Foresman. Retrieved 2020 February 21 fromhttps://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED205399.pdf.

Dweck, C. S., & Leggett, E. L. (1988). A social-cognitive approach to motivation and personality. Psychological Review, 95(2), 256.

Paul, E. S., Harding, E. J., &Mendl, M. (2005). Measuring emotional processes in animals: the utility of a cognitive approach. Neuroscience &Biobehavioral Reviews, 29(3), 469-491.

Smith, E. R., &DeCoster, J. (2000). Dual-process models in social and cognitive psychology: Conceptual integration and links to underlying memory systems. Personality and social psychology review, 4(2), 108-131.

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