The use of Cognitive perspective in information


Psychology refers to a scientific study of the mind and behavior, both thought and feeling. It involves studying the unconscious and conscious phenomena. Professional researchers in psychology are known as psychologists. Their classifications include behavioral, social, or cognitive scientist. Psychology comprises a myriad of disciplines that can get divided into sub-categories, such as human development, health, social behavior, and cognitive processes. In psychology, an approach refers to a view, belief, or assumption about how humans function, their behavior, and appropriate methods to study them. Cognition consists of the undertakings and processes involved in the attainment, storage, repossession, and processing of knowledge(Sammons, 2005). Alternatively, it may include activitiesor processes that aid people to distinguish, recall, contemplate, classify, reason, and make decisions. Cognition describes the processes and complexes of knowledge itself. Cognitive psychology refers to the study of the mind, perception, attention, memory, and procedure that are involved in receiving, collecting, and retrievinginformation(Sammons, 2005). This research paper will discuss the cognitive perspective and how through it, people perceive, learn, remember, and think about information.

Cognitive perspective views and compares people to computers in the sense that both process information in a similar fashion. The cognitive perspective argues that both the human brain and the computer processing unit, process information, store data, and have an input-output function process(Mayer, 1977, p.4). The cognitive perspective is a scientific perspective, and psychologists in this field believe that the memory is composed of three distinct phases(Mayer, 1977, p.6). The first stage is encoding, where data is received, acknowledged, and then processed(Mayer, 1977, p.10). The second phase is storage or retention of information, and the final stage retrieval of information(Mayer, 1977, p.12). Concerning the three distinct phases, cognitive psychologists are the opposing parties to behaviorists and argue that nothing intervenes between stimuli and response in terms of mental processes. These psychologists are bided behind the principle that mental processes can and should be studied and deliberated scientifically.

Don't use plagiarized sources. Get Your Custom Essay on
The use of Cognitive perspective in information
Just from $9/Page
Order Essay

New ways and means of helping people dealing with psychological difficulties can get achieved by cognitive psychologists, other than getting a deeper understanding of the functioning of the human brain(Rajaram, 2011, p.78). An example is recognizing that attention is selective as well as a limited resource; they are then able to think of solutions to lessen the burden of individuals with difficulties in attention, thus enhancing their concentration. Cognitive psychologists help people improve their memories through rehearsal strategy other than just attention. Cognitive psychology states that short term memory is a result of losing attention(Dweck, & Leggett, 1988, p.264). Rehearsals improve the chances of information getting transferred to the stable long term memory. The cognitive perspective is divided into four categories, namely, Experimental Cognitive Psychology, Computational Cognitive Science, Cognitive Neuropsychology, and Cognitive Neuroscience(Dweck, & Leggett, 1988, p.268). Each of the four categories has an emphasison a different facet and provides a distinctivefeature of the basis of the cognitive processes. These Cognitive perspectives have a function to give insights into the functioning of the human mind by providinga generalized ideology of the mechanisms involved in fundamental cognitive processes.

Experimental Cognitive Psychology refers to experiments done on healthy individuals in a tightly controlled laboratory environment(Narayanan, Zane, & Kemmerer, 2011, p.320). Computational Cognitive Science involves creating computer-based models of human cognitive functions, as well as some work on artificial intelligence. Cognitive Neuropsychology refers to the study of people that have suffered brain damage in a bid to determine if at all, there could be a possible cognitive impairment due to the injury. Cognitive Neuroscience involves the use of brain imaging to study cognitive functions through the use of healthy individuals(Schäffner, 2004, p.1260).

Cognitive psychology is goal-oriented and focusses on problem-solving. A perfect example of cognitive psychology is a student that is to undertake a test and which they believe will be tough. To avoid thinking about it, the student ends up distracting themselves. After taking the test, the student fails. A cognitive psychologist would help the student analyze the problem and tell them that their failure results from their initial belief that the test will be tough.

Cognitive approaches have a myriad of characteristics. These beliefs include certainty that psychological anguish is principally the aftermath of a disruption in the cognitive processes, an assurance that there is a shared relationship between client and therapist, and emphasis on altering cognition to produce theanticipatedemotionally and behaviorally modifications.

The modern viewpoints on cognitive psychology commonly discourse cognition as a twofold procedure theory, which further distinguishes the dualistic classes of processing terming them as intuition and reasoning (Bartunek&Moch, 1987, p.484). Intuition, similar to associative thinking, is quick, involuntary, and automatic. Intuition involves getting resilient to emotional ties encompassed in the process of reasoning. Cognitive psychology states that reasoning is hard to manipulate or alter since it is founded on formed habits(Bartunek&Moch, 1987, p.487). The reasoning is slow but more volatile or unpredictable since it results from emotions, attitude, and conscious judgments.

Cognitive perspectives use five research methods to gain insights into the functioning of higher mental processes. They include experiments, case studies, computer simulations, psychobiological studies, and naturalistic observation (Ehlers &Steil, 1995, p.220). They are called research methods in cognitive psychology


Experiments involve a researcher manipulating a given variable, to know if it affects another variable. It entails the use of the dependent and independent variables, although not all experiments have the comparative feature(Ehlers &Steil, 1995, p.227). Some researchers prefer within-subject design while others chose the between-subjects design.

Psychobiological Studies

Psychobiological studies refer to an investigation or research conducted to establish a relationship between cognition and the brain’s activities (Ehlers &Steil, 1995, p.232). It gets done through observation of brain performances in brain-damaged individuals, using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and conductingpost mortem studies to compare the brain of healthy individuals with with those with deficits.

Computer simulations

Computer simulations have an objective to replicate some aspects of human functioning. A given cognitive element is run on a computer program. After a successful run and the results or output is same as that of human, then the researcher concludes that the theory is comprehensive and credible.

Naturalistic observation.

Naturalistic observation refers to situations in which the researcher observes individuals in their real-life settings, such as their workplaces or homes.Naturalistic observation gets conducted with or without the knowledge of the persons getting observed. The researcher has to consider some ethical factors whenever they are conducting the research incognito. Invading personal space is illegal in some countries. Some people value and treasure their privacy and can sue the researcher for invading their own space.

Case studies

Cae studies refer to an intensive investigation done on either person of extreme ability or those with some sort of deficits. It may be through extensive or thorough interviews and observations. It seeks to assess the functions of the brain.

Cognitive psychologists believe that expectation and emotion determine behavior. Jean Piaget, founder of Piaget’s theory that people remember things depending on what they already know. He argued that people solved problems bases on their past experiences.

Piaget’s theory

Cognition refers to thinking and memory processes. Cognitive development is the long-standing alterations in those processes. Jean Piaget is the founder of Piaget’s theory, which is the most acknowledged concept of cognitive theory (Smith&DeCoster, 2000, p.108). Piaget fashioned and studied the process of how children progressively become logic thinkers and start to think scientifically(Smith, &DeCoster, 2000, p.110). Piaget’s view emphasized that learning was advanced by the onset of changing concepts to fit into different involvements. The back and forth of these two processes leads to short-term learning and a durable evolving variation.

Through close observation and research on children, Piaget proposed that cognition advanced through distinctive phases right from birth to the completion of puberty. These stages implied a sequence of intellectual patterns and configurations that have three significant characteristics;a tendency to happen in a similar order, not skipping of a single-phase, and each stage being a vital transformation of the preceding stage (Smith, &DeCoster, 2000, p.113). Piaget’s theory comprises of four main cognitive development stages. They include sensorimotor intelligence, Preoperational thinking, Concrete operational thinking, and Formal operational thinking).

Sensorimotor intelligence

Sensorimotor intelligence is the first stage that gets described as that period when children rationally try to think through their senses and motor actions(Paul, Harding, &Mendl, 2005, p.470). These children recurrently touch, look, and even bite and gnaw or chew anything they see or get. These doings, according to Piaget, help these children get an insight into their environment, and are very much essential in the primary cognitive development.

Preoperational thinking

Preoperational thinking refers to the stage where children utilize their newly acquired skills to embody objects in diversified actions or activities. Children cannot conduct their activities in an organized manner. The most common is dramatic acting and acting.

Concrete operational thinking

Concrete operational thinking refers to the stage in which children solve problems. Children operate and conduct themselves systematically and logically. Although basic, their operations are quite advanced.

Formal operational thinking

The formal operational stage refers to when children employ the use of both abstract and hypothetical thinking. They are now very much advanced and operate in presentations or forms.

In conclusion, Psychology is the scientific study of the mind and behavior, both thought and feeling. Psychology is a broad field characterized by varying approaches that are beneficial in diverse circumstances. In the cognitive approach or perspective, the emphasis is on the belief that their thoughts or feeling prejudices an individual’s behavior.


Sammons, A. (2005). Approaches to Psychology: The Cognitive Approach, the Basics. Retrieved 2020 February 17 from

Narayanan, V. K., Zane, L. J., & Kemmerer, B. (2011). The cognitive perspective in strategy: An integrative review. Journal of Management, 37(1), 305-351.

Rajaram, S. (2011). Collaboration both hurts and helps memory: A cognitive perspective. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 20(2), 76-81.

Ehlers, A., &Steil, R. (1995). Maintenance of intrusive memories in posttraumatic stress disorder: A cognitive approach. Behavioral and cognitive psychotherapy, 23(3), 217-249.

Bartunek, J. M., &Moch, M. K. (1987). First-order, second-order, and third-order change and organization development interventions: A cognitive approach. The Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 23(4), 483-500.

Schäffner, C. (2004). Metaphor and translation: some implications of a cognitive approach. Journal of pragmatics, 36(7), 1253-1269.

Mayer, R. E. (1977). Technical Report Series In learning and Cognition: An introduction to human cognition and learning. Glenview, IL: Scott, Foresman. Retrieved 2020 February 21 from

Dweck, C. S., & Leggett, E. L. (1988). A social-cognitive approach to motivation and personality. Psychological Review, 95(2), 256.

Paul, E. S., Harding, E. J., &Mendl, M. (2005). Measuring emotional processes in animals: the utility of a cognitive approach. Neuroscience &Biobehavioral Reviews, 29(3), 469-491.

Smith, E. R., &DeCoster, J. (2000). Dual-process models in social and cognitive psychology: Conceptual integration and links to underlying memory systems. Personality and social psychology review, 4(2), 108-131.

Get professional assignment help cheaply

Are you busy and do not have time to handle your assignment? Are you scared that your paper will not make the grade? Do you have responsibilities that may hinder you from turning in your assignment on time? Are you tired and can barely handle your assignment? Are your grades inconsistent?

Whichever your reason may is, it is valid! You can get professional academic help from our service at affordable rates. We have a team of professional academic writers who can handle all your assignments.

Our essay writers are graduates with diplomas, bachelor, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college diploma. When assigning your order, we match the paper subject with the area of specialization of the writer.

Why choose our academic writing service?

  • Plagiarism free papers
  • Timely delivery
  • Any deadline
  • Skilled, Experienced Native English Writers
  • Subject-relevant academic writer
  • Adherence to paper instructions
  • Ability to tackle bulk assignments
  • Reasonable prices
  • 24/7 Customer Support
  • Get superb grades consistently











Get Professional Assignment Help Cheaply

Buy Custom Essay

Are you busy and do not have time to handle your assignment? Are you scared that your paper will not make the grade? Do you have responsibilities that may hinder you from turning in your assignment on time? Are you tired and can barely handle your assignment? Are your grades inconsistent?

Whichever your reason is, it is valid! You can get professional academic help from our service at affordable rates. We have a team of professional academic writers who can handle all your assignments.

Why Choose Our Academic Writing Service?

  • Plagiarism free papers
  • Timely delivery
  • Any deadline
  • Skilled, Experienced Native English Writers
  • Subject-relevant academic writer
  • Adherence to paper instructions
  • Ability to tackle bulk assignments
  • Reasonable prices
  • 24/7 Customer Support
  • Get superb grades consistently

Online Academic Help With Different Subjects


Students barely have time to read. We got you! Have your literature essay or book review written without having the hassle of reading the book. You can get your literature paper custom-written for you by our literature specialists.


Do you struggle with finance? No need to torture yourself if finance is not your cup of tea. You can order your finance paper from our academic writing service and get 100% original work from competent finance experts.

Computer science

Computer science is a tough subject. Fortunately, our computer science experts are up to the match. No need to stress and have sleepless nights. Our academic writers will tackle all your computer science assignments and deliver them on time. Let us handle all your python, java, ruby, JavaScript, php , C+ assignments!


While psychology may be an interesting subject, you may lack sufficient time to handle your assignments. Don’t despair; by using our academic writing service, you can be assured of perfect grades. Moreover, your grades will be consistent.


Engineering is quite a demanding subject. Students face a lot of pressure and barely have enough time to do what they love to do. Our academic writing service got you covered! Our engineering specialists follow the paper instructions and ensure timely delivery of the paper.


In the nursing course, you may have difficulties with literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, critical essays, and other assignments. Our nursing assignment writers will offer you professional nursing paper help at low prices.


Truth be told, sociology papers can be quite exhausting. Our academic writing service relieves you of fatigue, pressure, and stress. You can relax and have peace of mind as our academic writers handle your sociology assignment.


We take pride in having some of the best business writers in the industry. Our business writers have a lot of experience in the field. They are reliable, and you can be assured of a high-grade paper. They are able to handle business papers of any subject, length, deadline, and difficulty!


We boast of having some of the most experienced statistics experts in the industry. Our statistics experts have diverse skills, expertise, and knowledge to handle any kind of assignment. They have access to all kinds of software to get your assignment done.


Writing a law essay may prove to be an insurmountable obstacle, especially when you need to know the peculiarities of the legislative framework. Take advantage of our top-notch law specialists and get superb grades and 100% satisfaction.

What discipline/subjects do you deal in?

We have highlighted some of the most popular subjects we handle above. Those are just a tip of the iceberg. We deal in all academic disciplines since our writers are as diverse. They have been drawn from across all disciplines, and orders are assigned to those writers believed to be the best in the field. In a nutshell, there is no task we cannot handle; all you need to do is place your order with us. As long as your instructions are clear, just trust we shall deliver irrespective of the discipline.

Are your writers competent enough to handle my paper?

Our essay writers are graduates with bachelor's, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college degree. All our academic writers have a minimum of two years of academic writing. We have a stringent recruitment process to ensure that we get only the most competent essay writers in the industry. We also ensure that the writers are handsomely compensated for their value. The majority of our writers are native English speakers. As such, the fluency of language and grammar is impeccable.

What if I don’t like the paper?

There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.

Reasons being:

  • When assigning your order, we match the paper’s discipline with the writer’s field/specialization. Since all our writers are graduates, we match the paper’s subject with the field the writer studied. For instance, if it’s a nursing paper, only a nursing graduate and writer will handle it. Furthermore, all our writers have academic writing experience and top-notch research skills.
  • We have a quality assurance that reviews the paper before it gets to you. As such, we ensure that you get a paper that meets the required standard and will most definitely make the grade.

In the event that you don’t like your paper:

  • The writer will revise the paper up to your pleasing. You have unlimited revisions. You simply need to highlight what specifically you don’t like about the paper, and the writer will make the amendments. The paper will be revised until you are satisfied. Revisions are free of charge
  • We will have a different writer write the paper from scratch.
  • Last resort, if the above does not work, we will refund your money.

Will the professor find out I didn’t write the paper myself?

Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.

What if the paper is plagiarized?

We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.

When will I get my paper?

You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.

Will anyone find out that I used your services?

We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.

How our Assignment  Help Service Works

1.      Place an order

You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.

2.      Pay for the order

Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.

3.      Track the progress

You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.

4.      Download the paper

The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.

smile and order essaysmile and order essay PLACE THIS ORDER OR A SIMILAR ORDER WITH US TODAY AND GET A PERFECT SCORE!!!

order custom essay paper