The theory of transcultural nursing

Analysis of transcultural nursing

Background (bold)

The theory of transcultural nursing first emerged in the year 19 55. the theory was first formalized in the year 1966 with the introduction of the cultural programs and various 1000 doctorate programs in the universities. Cultural Theory was developed together for the diversities of the diverse cultures in the United States. The theory later expanded to incorporate the sunrise model where it has since evolved to the current transcultural nursing Theory. let agreed to specialisation where nursing School specialise and offer consultations and their generalities based on different cultures that exist in the world. The introduction of transcultural nursing Theory brought about specialisation, where nurses cool Focus all the subject is professionals and could offer specialised and cultural care to patients to aid in their quick recovery process. The main aim of cultural care in the Healthcare provisions was to focus on specific care to patients from universal backgrounds solely to improve their health and well-being. The tailored approach was mainly focused on adverse human situations and life and death situations.

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Theorist’s Background (bold)

Madeleine Leininger, a professional nurse, developed the Transcultural Nursing Theory. She was born on July 13th, 1925 and has greatly impacted the nursing career through her theory of transcultural care. The nurse holds a doctorate in anthropology, in 1966, from the University of Colorado. After her undergraduate degree, she furthered our studies in cultural anthropology from the University of Washington. She also combined with the social anthropology that she attended a PhD in the same subjects in 1966. The professional nurse further studies and has contributed positively to nursing fashion with various awards and honours like the Awards she received in 1998 by the American Academy of Nursing called the living legend. The author died on 10th August 2012. They had a tremendous impact on the nursing professions to the various positions he has served in the departments of the universities and their healthcare professionals. She has been an adjunct faculty member and professor by existing services and extending her duties of advocating for transcultural nursing care.

The phenomenon of Concern (bold)

The event under which transcultural nursing was formulated post focus on the competencies of the nursing professions was to offer cultural care to individual patients. The specialized cultural care focuses on improving operations outcome and well-being with the focus on cultural ways. Also, The theory focuses on the beneficial ways of employing cultural congruence when dealing with a human’s health and physical conditions. The physical conditions of the patient may range from disabilities, regaining their health, and life and death situations, including deadly diseases. The phenomenal is thereby constitutional on cultural practices surrounding the patients. Understanding the Patience cultural needs is vital to ensure compliance with medical treatments and cultural Justification. The Cultural Theory put some faces of the nursing practices to learn the various ways and cultural diversities of the patients for offering natural treatments tailored for specific patients. Understanding the Patience culture and needs to facilitate provision of quality service delivery which relates to positive patient outcomes.

Theory Description (bold)

The transcultural theory was developed by Madeleine Leininger, and it started back in the year 1978. It involves understanding cultures concerning health-illness caring practices and nursing with the core objective of providing reasonable healthcare services to human subjects concerning health illness and cultural values background. According to Leininger, the main reason for nursing is to offer care congruent with cultural beliefs, values and practices. She states that attention is the spirit of nursing and distinctive, dominant and unifying characteristics. She insists that there can be no cure without care and that there can be cured with caring. Medical personnel should always work to understand health beliefs, care and values and lifestyle of diverse cultures which provides the foundation for offering culture-specific care. The cultural care globally flows into an understanding about families, individuals, communities, groups and institutions in diverse nursing care systems. The knowledge enhances the culturally specific expressional and meaning about health and care.

Again, nursing care actions and decisions entail social care preservation; care-repatterning and social care accommodation. Cultural care preservation helps in maintaining health, recovering from sickness and facing death. Cultural care accommodation enhances the negotiation for favourable health status. Moreover, cultural care re patterning improves the changing of lifestyles and are meaningful culturally.


Concepts (bold)

Ethno nursing

This involves the study of nursing care values, practices and values as cognitively superficial and known by culture through their experience, value system and beliefs.


Nursing is a humanistic and scientific discipline that focuses on the personal care phenomenon to support, assist, facilitate and enhance individuals or groups well being in a culturally reasonable way.


This is the formal professional care knowledge and skills that is obtained through educational institutions to enhance supportive, assistive and facilitative actions for individuals and groups to improve people’s health situations.

Cultural congruent care

This involves cognitive-based assistive, facilitative, supportive or enabling decisions that are tailor-made to fit with the group, individual and institutional cultural way to enhance meaningful and satisfying nursing care.


This entails the well being that is culturally valued, defined and practised, which reflects an individual’s ability to perform their daily activities in a culturally beneficial and patterned way of life.

Human beings

People are believed to be caring and can have a concern about their needs, survival and well being of others. According to Leininger, nursing is a caring service that concentrates on the traditional nurse-patient relationship and dyads to comprise groups, families, communities, institutions and cultures.

Society and environment

Leininger does not define these words by instead speaks of a global view, environmental context and social structure.


People perceive the world and form an image of the globe and their lives.

Cultural and social structure dimensions.

According to Leininger, the social and cultural dimensions entails the involvement of the dynamic patterns and characteristic of related structural and organizational aspects of a culture. tHE CULUTRES s of kinship, religious, economic, political, educational, cultural and technological values, ethnohistorical aspects and how they may be functioning to affect human behaviour in diverse environmental contexts.

Environmental context

Leininger states that ecological context is the totality of a situation that gives meaning to human interpretation, expression and social interactions in particular ecological, physical, cultural and sociopolitical settings.


Culture is shared, leaned and transmitted belief values, lifeways and norms of groups that guide their decisions, actions and thinking in patterned ways.

Diagram (bold)


Assumption (bold)

Below are the assumptions of Madeleine Leininger theory

Different cultures know, perceive and practice care in diverse ways despite the fact the there are some commonalities on the concern among the cultures globally.

Human care is universal though caring is demonstrated through different actions, expressions, meanings, lifestyles and patterns.

Cultural care is a holistic approach to understand, interpret and predict nursing experience to lead to nursing care practices.

Professional practices vary across cultures because they are generic and therefore in any given culture, there are always similarities and differences among the professional and care receivers.

Care is dominant, distinct, central and unifying focus of nursing in which curing and healing may not happen without care but with care.

Caring is core for human survival as well as their growth and development, health, healing, well being and their ability to deal with handicaps and deaths.

Nursing care is culturally beneficial when nurses know patients, and the clients expressional, patterns and cultural values are appropriately used by the nurses with the clients’.

A client demonstrates signs of stress, cultural conflict, non-compliance and ethical concerns if they do not receive reasonable nursing care that is culturally congruent.

Nursing as a transcultural care profession and discipline possess a central purpose of serving humanity in all places in the world. Therefore when the culturally-based nursing care is reasonable and healthy, it enhances the well being of clients given the fact that they are groups, individuals, families, institutions and communities using their function on environmental context.


Metaparadigms (bold)

Person component

Leininger states that well being that is culturally valued, defined and practised reflects individuals ‘ capability to perform daily activities in a culturally beneficial and patterned life way. This portion of the metaparadigms concentrates on the receiver of care. A person’s connection entails the family members and groups that are important to patients. Health results from people’s interactions with the social and physical contexts. Human subjects should manage their health and well being with self-preservation and dignity with positive personal interactions. According to Leininger, nursing is a caring service that focuses on the nurse-patient relationship.

Environment component

This focuses on the environs that affect patients. Environment contends on how individuals interact with the environment bearing in mind wellness and health. The metaparadigms assumes that a person can alter the environment to enhance health status. According to Leininger, the environmental context is the totality of a situation that provides meaning to human interpretation, expression and social interactions in a given physical, cultural, ecological and sociopolitical settings.

Health component

This refers to the nursing care access and wellness that patients have. The welfare and health cover an individual’s genetic makeup and person’s lifespan and the way their emotional, physical, social, intellectual and spiritual well-being integration in nursing care for optimum benefits. The theory is that all these factors impact the patients well being.


This entails the delivery of optimum health patient results through mutual relations in a caring and safe environment. This component applies knowledge, technology, skills, judgments, communication, and collaboration to carry out responsibilities to achieving the best patient result. Generally, it values service and integrates with other metaparadigms to ensure patient well being. Transcultural nursing is the humanistic and scientific discipline that focuses on personal care to support, assist, facilitate and enhance an individual, group’s well being in a culturally reasonable manner.

Evaluation (bold)


Clarity (bold)

The main focus of the transfer cultural Theory is to enhance the patient’s well-being growth and survival in the face of death. With the different diversities and backgrounds of the patients, the nursing professionals will provide self-care discipline where patients will receive a tailored approach and care to enhance their quicker patient outcome. The theory is significant in the provision of better quality and service delivery to patients’ and is faster and recovery processes. The theory care focus on the patient and their needs and beliefs, which makes them feel they are part of enhancing their patient outcome.

Congruence (bold)

Culturally congruent care is essential for the provision of quality healthcare services by the healthcare professionals to patients. Because people from different backgrounds and diversities, they have different perceptions and values in life and pertaining the health. Understanding this congruence and diversity is by the nurses is essential to ensure they provide quality and specialised care to the patients that are culturally congruent with their beliefs. Treatment of the patients relates to the deep-rooted cultural values. cultural values play a crucial role in their recovery processes. Then a professional licence will require specialised and requisite skills to determine the cultures and offer culturally congruent care to the patient.

Application (bold)


Level (bold)

The significant deal and the provision of quality health care services to patients in the U diverse cultures in the United States and goals are incorporating and employing at the proper level of understanding and compassion. The nurse’s shoulder understands the customs and brings themselves to the level of their patients to provide quality services and Taylor their needs. Bringing professional access to the level of their patients build trust between the patient and the nurse. When their patients are comfortable with the nurses, they will readily accept medications care and treatments from the medical professionals that suit their needs. Besides, the excellent relationship between the professional nurse and the patient is the confidence that the doctor has good intentions and is willing to help them recover faster. The patient believes the nurse understands them well, which gives the and this is our chance to provide care and the Patients based on acceptance.

Use (bold)

The provision of the system relates to the provision of tailored care to patients based on cultural diversities and their backgrounds. The aim involves listening to the patients and understanding their cultures and their beliefs. Other aspects of the perception that the nurses have to be familiar with include the cultural values and the patient’s expectations. The nursing has to determine the best approach and care to give to the patient to aid in her faster and quick recovery process. The nursing professionals must first communicate openly with the patients to determine the above cultural aspects. Thus, open and efficient communication skill is essential for both the patient and the nurse’s best understanding and corporation. With facts and knowledge of the culture of the patients, the nurses should use her knowledge and experience to provide a specialized to facilitate their correspondence to the treatments.



Weaknesses (bold)

One of the shortcomings of the theory is that model and philosophy are not simple in terms of Promoting the culture as a result of the various experiences education and backgrounds of The Professionals nurses. The differences are further widened with a diverse history of the patient’s. Another significant backlash in the provision of quality service care and centred social care to patients involves their patient environments in terms of cultural beliefs. For example, some African cultures believe too much in their curses the traditional ideas. Diversity makes them perform local healers to professional, trained nurses. This it difficult for professional nurses and medical practitioners to offer quality services and positive patient care to enhance patient outcomes. Finally, with a limited number of professional nurses and other healthcare professionals in the Healthcare system, it is difficult for professional nurses to be specialised and offering treatment to a certain culture. the diversity makes it even harder for the nurses to provide care that what’s a specific culture with precision.


Future (bold)

with the modernization of technology today, the world is quickly becoming a globalised state with a common culture. The internet has made the world a global village where different cultures and people interact in future with each other. Being a universal life, the future of America anticipates more cultural diversities and immigrations. Cultural diversities is bound to remain and to grow more complicated as it is today. Nurses should be prepared to handle such situations and time. The introduction of the internet is efficient and fast, which makes the nurse more aware and concerned with their patients’ culture even without asking them. The technology also makes it easier for nurses to learn faster about a specific culture and offer Healthcare to patients in a precise manner.

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