The concept of calculus by Sir Isaac Newton

Why did Sir Isaac Newton develop a mathematical structure (such as calculus) that is hard for many to understand and often comes with a lifetime of study?

Sir Isaac Newton is widely remembered for his significant contribution in the field of mathematics and science. He is recognized for having been among the most influential scientists and mathematicians of all times. He was born in December 1642 and died in March 1726. In those days, he was generally referred to as a natural philosopher. He was an English author, physicist, theologian, mathematician and astronomer. He is also known for having developed a complex mathematical structure known as calculus. This mathematical structure was developed in the middle of the 17th century independently by Sir Isaac Newton and Gottfried Leibniz.Calculus isa historical presentation of a discipline of mathematics that bases its focus on functions, integrals, infinite series, derivatives and limits.

The concept of calculus had been tried by several other people over many centuries prior to its development by Sir Isaac Newton. These people had ideas about it, but they had not succeeded in developing it until the time of Sir Isaac Newton. These people were mostly from ancient Greek. Newton gets the credit for being the person who discovered the most concepts that are revolutionary in the mathematics of calculus. Barrow, who was Newton’s teacher, used the words “the fundamental calculus theorem” in some of his writings but he was unaware of the significance of the same, and he did not highlight it. It is, therefore, possible to presume that Newton learned some things from his teacher.

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This paper discusses why Sir Isaac Newton developed calculus despite being hard to understand mathematical structure for many people. Many people are usually put into fear when the word mathematics is pronounced. The elite are the ones who are said to own this subject. These people often give up on their efforts of trying to understand the confusing, illogical and terrible rules and expressions that mathematics bears. Many students of both informal and formal mathematics survive years of studying arithmetic and algebra just to find themselves studying the beast of all: calculus. The mere truth about mathematics is that it is advanced and complicated and that developing its language took a number of hundreds of years, which can be used to explain facts about the universe. Mathematics arose first to give predictions of the daily lives of people who were there then and to solve life problems. Human beings then developed the interest to know the way in which the world works and the current theories of mathematics that were there then posed a challenge to them. That is the reason as to why people in ancient times worked towards creating better and new models of nature, which led to advancement in mathematics. This was also a reason as to why Sir Isaac Newton and other mathematicians made efforts to create some of the very important equations of mathematics that are known to us today.

In order to get a proper understanding of why Sir Isaac Newton needed more precise mathematics, it is important first to understand what types of mathematics were in existence before he came and brought changes in everything concerning mathematics.

In the 1670s, two men, Sir Isaac Newton and Gottfried Leibniz of England and Germany, respectively, independently discovered and developed the concept of calculus. They both did some good work by forming a numbers’ language that was able to describe nature in an accurate form. It is important to note that Sir Isaac Newton was the first to develop calculus and that he did it eight years before Gottfried did it, but Gottfried further developed current European mathematics as he came up with rules and symbols that were drawn carefully. It is said by many people that he is the one who created the equals sign. For all their lives, these men claimed that the other made plagiarism of their work and a conflict called the “great sulk” existed between them.

The following are reasons as to why Sir Isaac Newton developed calculus as a complicated and new mathematical form and how he came up with this abstract idea:

First, Sir Isaac Newton was a physicist, and in the previous days, he used to take many challenging and difficult physics issues, the most popular of all being that of gravity. Newton’s work in calculus was mostly triggered by his previous developments in physics such as the development of gravitation and the laws of motion. In his effort to describe the manner in which an object falls, he found that the rate at which the speed of the falling objects was directly proportional to the time taken and that there was no mathematics that described that phenomenon then.

Another reason as to why Newton reasoned towards developing calculus is that one of his colleagues asked him why the planet orbits were in an ellipse. He took some good time to ponder and think about the question and came with the fact that these ellipses were actually cone sections. He used the calculus to give a detailed description of how and why these sections behaved the way they did.This and other questions and the fact that Cambridge University where Newton studied was closed because of several outbreaks of plague increased his desire to expand on mathematics and develop integral and differential concepts of calculus.

The answer to the question that asks how one can develop such a new and complex mathematical form is simple and deceptive.  Newton simply used to force relationships between the mathematics of those day and physical phenomena. By means of trial and error, and from his understanding of the concepts of physics, Newton saw the need for the development of a new mathematical concept. His well-known description of planets and gravity made Newton have already known some ideas of calculus. What he was yet to do is to write down the concepts to proof that calculus works.

It would not be logical for a person to say that Sir Isaac Newton was not a brilliant man, although calculus has had information added to it for the past three hundred years which includes several features that have been added to it including limits, which help to simplify everything, which means that it is not necessary for one to be genius so as to understand it. Today, if a student has a good understanding of algebra, he or she has a piece of better knowledge than Newton had when he developed the concept of calculus. Mathematics students of the present should not have a fear of calculus because it is not a mathematical structure for only those who are genius or the elite, but it is for any student or learner who has the discipline and time to learn it.

Another mathematician who added to Newton’s concept of calculus is Fermat. He found derivatives and the maxima and minima of equations. Many other mathematicians invented and developed derivatives and the integral. Newton’s aversion to controversy made him be involved in probably the largest controversy in the history of mathematics on a mathematical discovery. The irony lies in the fact the person who was the most averse to it finally ended up being involved in the biggest aversion in history. It actually caused and effect. His aversion is what finally brought about the controversy. The real reason as to why the controversy arose is that he is actually the one who developed the calculus concept in the midst of the 1660s. He asserts that he came with the basic ideas of this concept in 1664, 1665 and 1666. He says that in 1669 he wrote a paper about calculus, but he did not publish it. He wrote another paper about the same and did not publish it as well and also another one in 1676 and still didn’t publish. In fact, the papers were published, but he is not the one who did it. The paper that Newton wrote in 1669 was published in 1711, which is 42 years later. None of Newton’s works on calculus was published up to the beginning of the 18th century. What Newton did is giving his works to acquaintances and friends.  It was clearly known that he used to do this, so it was not just hearsay. He actually used his calculus techniques in his works of science. It is important to understand that some of the ideas of calculus did not exist at the very beginning or during the invention of calculus. An example of these ideas is the idea of function. At any time, we are able to know where we are, and at every time there is speed, these are examples of function. The concept of function had not been formulated until the 1690s after the invention of calculus. People were vague about these concepts.

Sir Isaac Newton did not really understand calculus in any way that was formal during that time. This posed a big challenge to the people of that time as they could not understand such concepts as infinite processes. That was a very big block for him. What worried him the most is the infinitesimal time length. He would think about this phenomenon for quite a long period of time. That thinking led to all kinds of paradoxes, including Zeno’s paradoxes.

Newton’s wish is seeming to have been to learn something that hadn’t previously been studied. This is because he had the knowledge that Leibniz had some of the ideas of calculus. This is because when he realized that in the 1770s, he started working towards getting the credit as the core developer of calculus. He wrote a letter to Leibniz telling him about his thinking concerning derivations. He coded the letters of some sentences by counting and recording how many times individual letters appeared in particular sentences. He put the letters in alphabetical order so as to establish to Leibniz his priority for calculus. A mere mathematician could not have a little understanding of the real translation of some sentences that Newton had included in his letter to Leibniz. That was how Sir Isaac tried establishing how he had prioritized calculus, but Leibniz was accused of reading some of Newton’s manuscripts before getting the ideas that he had. Leibniz published the calculus ideas first; therefore, the people who were by his side said that it is Newton who had stolen the ideas from him and not the vice versa. This caused a very big mess which led to retardation of British mathematics for the following century as they did not take advantage of the important developments of calculus that were happening in continental Europe.

To prove that Newton wanted to learn something that had not been previously studied, to start his development of calculus, he based his work on binomial theorem. The binomial theorem gave him the method to finding integrals and derivatives of powers of a variable, and thus infinite series and polynomials. It is from this where all the rest of calculus developed, although Sir Isaac Newton only worked on the forms of calculus that he could need in his works in physics. Newton began by first having to understand the fundamental calculus theorem, the inverse relationship between fluxions and integrals. He had written some notes on fluxions in 1666, but it was until 1693 when he first published something about the mathematical subject of calculus. This was a long time after Leibniz had published. His methods of calculation of calculus could work out integrals and derivatives of the hyperbolic, trigonometric, exponential, and other rules and functions for products and quotients, the functions of the functions chain rule and construction of different other types of infinite series.

Sir Isaac Newton did his work in the development of calculus as if he was competing Leibniz so as to know what concepts he had not studied so that he could dwell and expound on them. Newton referred to calculus as geometrical. On the other hand, Leibniz took calculus towards analysis. Leibniz placed his conscious of the significance of good notation and was very careful when he used symbols. Newton placed emphasis on writing notes for himself than doing it for anyone else. He could use any notation that he could feel like using on any given day. This translated into some importance in later developments of the concept of calculus. The notation by Leibniz was better used in generalizing calculus to several variables and in addition, it highlighted the aspect of the operator of the integral and derivative. Leibniz’s notation is the most commonly used in calculus today.

In his development of calculus, Sir Isaac Newton used infinitesimals quantities that are infinitely small. Actually, these infinitesimals do not really exist, but Newton found it important to use them in his computations and result in derivation. Mathematicians were bothered with the concept of infinitesimals, although it could be too hard for one to argue against the success of calculus. Some serious criticisms were made towards the concept of infinitesimals, and they could be referred to as “ghosts of departed quantities.”  These criticisms were very important and had good foundations as they placed their focus on the attention that mathematicians had on a logical explanation of calculus. When we study calculus for the first time, we do it in a manner that is moving back towards its development. It is always our wish to take advantage of the centuries of thought that have been used in developing it. As a result, it is almost becoming a routine that we always begin by studying about limits. It is then after this when we define the integral and derivative that that was developed by Sir Isaac Newton. After that, we then see how we can use the derivative or integral in real life in solving life problems that made the mathematicians grow the desire to develop calculus.

Actually, Sir Isaac Newton wanted to bring changes in the world when he invented and developed calculus although it is in the present day taken for granted. Calculus makes use of chemistry, economics, physics, biology, all engineering branches, pure mathematics and many more other subjects and disciplines. It is not an exaggeration to say that Newton wanted to improve the ability of the coming generations to pursue new branches of engineering and science. Today, calculus is used in solving problems when quantity changes as a timer function, which is the behaviour of most problems in real-life situations. After inventing calculus and outlining the ways in which it can be used, Isaac Newton had made the most crucial breakthroughs in the history of mathematics, and it is crucial up to this day.

According to Newton, calculus is simply the study of the rate at which a quantity changes with respect to time. In particular, it can be narrowed down to the study of the rate at which change occurs and the addition of quantities. He came up with two distinct types of calculus; differential and integral calculus. Integral calculus only deals with gathering and addition of quantities that are infinitely small. On the other hand, differential calculus concentrates on the rate at which a quantity changes, for example, the rate at which the position of an object can change with respect to time. Newton introduced calculus so that it could be used and applied in places where algebra could not be applied. He based its importance on the idea that lines that have slopes can be handled in mathematical ways only through approximating them as very small segments of lines and then allow the segments to get infinitely small. He knew that this phenomenon could be greatly used in real-life situations, which is the reason he made it a little bit simple so that it could not only include complex ideas for that could only be taught in lecture rooms. Later on, among the applications of calculus that Newton mentioned, its usage has increased in today’s world, and some modern industries rely on it in their works alongside other precise ways in which it is applied. It can be a surprise about how common the usage of calculus is and how varied it is.

Before developing the ideas of calculus, Sir Isaac Newton was already famous for having been of influence in other fields of science such as cosmology, physics and mathematics. The most famous of his scientific works was the invention of universal gravitation and the laws of motion. He wanted to solve the issue of calculus due to the influence of his own previous works in physics. He wanted to solve it using new frameworks of mathematics that were not in existence until that particular time. His breakthrough in the idea of calculus is undoubtedly connected to his focus on the laws of motion and universal gravitation.

Newton began it all by describing a falling object’s speed. Upon doing that, he found that after every second, the speed of a falling object increases, although there was no mathematical explanation in existence for that. In the field of mathematics, there had never been any degree that was significant that had been awarded for studying or explaining the issue of the rate of change and movement of an object, and this made Newton see a void in mathematics that had to be equipped. To begin his work, he incorporated the ellipses of planets into the theory so as to give an explanation of the orbit that the planets follow. With the use of calculus, he found that he was able to explain the movement of the planets and the reason as to why there is an ellipse of the planetary orbits. One of the major breakthroughs by Sir Isaac Newton is that: the force of gravity that is holding us to the ground is also the one that makes the moon to orbit the earth and the planets to orbit the sun.

All his works show that, when he came up with the idea of developing calculus and its focus on the change rate, it had significance to the work that he had done previously.  His understanding of the concepts of movement and physics aided him in understanding the fundamentals of calculus. His concentration on calculus did not mean that he had departed from his normal work. This fact demonstrates it clearly that there is a very strong link between physics and mathematics. According to Newton, it could be hard, actually impossible for one to take mathematics away from physics and vice versa. They go hand in hand.Newton’s theory of calculus was published in 1676, the theory in which he had used change rates informing the calculus foundations. Newton made a significant contribution in the field of calculus in particular and that of mathematics in general. Since then, some extra developments have been done on this concept.

When doing research on why Sir Isaac Newton developed calculus despite being hard for many people to understand, it is worthless not mentioning what calculus is used for. This is because before a theory is developed, the theorist should know where and how his or her theory can be applied. Newton’s concept of calculus is applied in every branch of engineering, mathematics, biology and science. Some industries depend greatly on calculus, and a lot of work relies on calculus for it to be accomplished. For example, in any sector that graphs and plots are used in analyzing particular trends, calculus will probably be used in one way or the other to handle the analysis.  Some particular formulae require the use of calculus when it comes to plotting of graphs. It will be advisable to use calculus when there is a need to estimate the dimensions of a graph accurately. It is necessary sometimes to predict hoe the line of a graph may look in future with the use of different calculations, and calculus is also needed in such types of calculations.

Calculus is extensively used in engineering. Planning in engineering has to use some models of mathematics that are created solely for that particular purpose. This is also applicable in the field of the medical industry. Anything that is related to motion, such as the development of vehicles, electricity and light, acoustics, will automatically need the use of calculus as it will be important to analyze the quantity that changes at a particular time. So, it is clear and true that a great number of industries need the use of calculus so that they can function properly. The vitality and importance of calculus have not diminished and has not yet shown any signs of diminishing despite the fact that it was developed about three hundred and fifty years ago. Some other physics branches have as well relied on the contribution of calculus to attain their desired breakthroughs. It is absolutely true that some discoveries and theories depend on others that came before them to develop. If it were not for calculus, the groundbreaking and famous theory of relativity by Albert Einstein could not have gained the prominence that it has today. This theory is simply about how time and space undergo change with respect to each other, and it is by this fact that calculus is the core of the theory of relativity.

Newton also wanted to make it simple when collecting and analyzing data. It is therefore very important for social sciences to depend heavily on the concept of calculus. For example, it would be too hard to calculate the rates of births and deaths in a particular area without using calculus. Predictions and forecasts in economics greatly use calculus. Calculus and other concepts of mathematics are important for the proper functioning of the economy. Without calculus, the functioning of the economy would function differently. These concepts are particularly used in predicting and explaining physical observations. The influence that Sir Isaac Newton has had due to the invention and development of calculus on the world has no end.

Since the invention of calculus, it has been very vital in the development of several advancements in engineering and physics. Calculus is able to tell us how astronomical bodies move, patterns of the weather, electronic and electric circuits, and how light and sound move. In the homes that we live today, most of the objects that we use there have been invented with the aid of calculus. For discoveries in science, calculus is useful both in large scale and small scale. It is used both in inventions and advancements in general.

A student can see calculus as illogical memorization of many equations that one just needs to go through while in school. The student can feel that there is no single day that they will be called upon to use and apply the many equations that they learn. As a result, they view the subject from a philosophical perspective. The student terms it to be an ill-statement that calculus is necessarily good for one to exist in real-life situations. They take it that no matter how calculus can be defined, it is not an essential contribution to human well-being.

Despite the importance calculus has in the field of engineering, many professional engineers seem to ignore the concept. There only understanding of calculus dwells on knowing its equations and how they are used. They take it as not important to cram numbers and equations provided that they feel good for the expected results of their work according to experience. Others only use calculus to confirm the results that they expected.

Newton’s concept of calculus is learned in high school, but many students do not know how it can be used in real-life situations. The calculus language is used almost everywhere in today’s technology and science. It can be used to model the trend of the stock market or even to determine the time that a rocket in the space will arrive in the orbit of the earth. Calculus uses a language that is designed in a special way for the purpose of explaining the nature of the universe. It can simply be termed to as the mathematics of change and motion.

The beauty of the concept of calculus is not only in mathematics but also in the manner in which it forms relationships and a common language with the dynamic nature of the world that we live in today. In any field, calculus has very many uses and applications. For example, when we use calculus, we are able to understand the atmospheric conditions and how they change, including the changing of pressure and temperature. With the use of differential calculus, meteorologists have the ability to forecast the weather for our benefit. It is important to note that Sir Isaac Newton had great vision in developing ideas that nobody had managed to develop, although there are other mathematicians who contributed to the development of the concept of calculus. The fact is that credit rests with Newton for the development of this important mathematical concept.

The concept holds great power over the world as it is capable of controlling and modelling systems. Medical experts, engineers, physicists, statisticians, scientists and economists always use the language of the case of a changing system, mathematical modelling of calculus can be used to predict the future, to analyze a system, and to find a solution that is optimal. Calculus can also beautifully model rates of reaction, revenue and costs, rates of births and deaths, astronomy and radioactive decay. Newton created a theorem that connects the two types of calculus, integration and differentiation. This theorem is referred to as the fundamental theorem of calculus. It states that integration and differentiation are inverse operations or opposites.

Newton said that his concept included the idea suitable for being used to describe how a rocket can be launched in aerospace. Calculus can be used to model an object in motion, for example, a rocket. The calculus of motion is used to describe the thrust of a rocket into space. In the physics of rockets, Newton’s second and third laws are used to explain the motion of a rocket that has a variable mass. Newton explained that the mass of the rocket decreases as the fuel propellant burns off. As the exhaust of the fuel propellant exits at a high velocity at the back of the rocket, the rocket is largely accelerated. The rocket, therefore, accelerates upwards due to the push force that is exerted at the back. Newton referred to the force that that pushes the rocket upwards as thrust. It is defined as the rate at which momentum changes. This force is actually the first momentum derivative.

Sir Isaac Newton both wanted both to learn something that had not been learned and also had a larger agenda for his research when he invented and developed the calculus despite the fact that it is a complex mathematical structure that is not easily understood by many people. The thrust that a rocket has when it is being launched forms the first calculus derivative. The propulsion of a rocket puts into practice Newton’s third law of motion which states that “for every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction.”

In the field of economics, Newton’s concept of calculus also has its benefits. It is a dream of many people to start and run their own business investments. It is a good practice to work towards maximizing the profits of the business so that it can run smoothly. Calculus can be used in the maximization of the revenues and the profits of a company. Financial problems can be solved using the language that micro economists model. The language tells business persons the number of units that they should actually sell so as to attain maximum profits. It prevents the loss of money through the production of too many units that do not sell-off.

Newton’s ideas of calculus can also be used in the field of medicine in, for example, to determine the response that an illness has to a drug. Calculus can be used by doctors in analyzing the reversion or progression of a disease. For example, if a patient is suffering from a tumour, a doctor can create a function that can be used in modelling the progression of the growth of the tumour. The function should be exponential with respect to time. The benefits and the beauty of calculus can be applied in any scenario that involves either motion or change or both. These scenarios can be involving economics, aerospace, medicine, among many others. The benefits and applications of calculus are too many and uncountable. If in any case, you have any dynamic issue that is involving either motion or change, it is sure that if you turn to calculus, it will act as a model and tool or solution to the problem and provides answers.

Sir Isaac Newton did not make any publication that could make fluxional calculus formal, although his many discoveries in mathematics were transmitted by means of correspondence and small papers that he supplied to his friends and compilations were made later, others after his death. Some of these papers include that which carried topics such as Opticks and the Principia. Newton would have begun his training in mathematics as the heir of Cambridge University’s Isaac Barrow. His attitude in mathematics had been noticed earlier as he could learn the theories of mathematics that were available at that time. Newton had already contributed to the advancement of the binomial theorem in the year 1664. He extended it and added the negative and fractional exponents. Newton’s effort to develop calculus was triggered by the fact that he was not new to such development, he had earlier succeeded in developing the binomial theorem and analysis of the infinite series. He had already shown the ability to view the infinite series not only as devices of approximation but also as forms of expression of a term.

Newton also developed the concept of calculus so as to show his ability to reason properly with the aid of aspects of nature and the ability to use existing theorems to develop new ones. This is because; his earlier advanced binomial theorem aided him in the formulation of the principle of calculus. He created the calculus’s fundamental theorem through his built calculations. He admitted that it is not worth disregarding errors in mathematics, regardless of how small they can be. He said that it would be good for him to explain what he had done shortly than accurately demonstrating.

Another reason that made Sir Isaac Newton to develop his approach to calculus was that he needed to determine the time at which something, for example, a stone that is thrown upward at some angle above the ground, stops going upwards with a slope that is positive and starts going downwards with a slope that is negative. He reasoned that, with certain assumptions, such as continuity and always having some slope, there must be a point at which the object was no longer going up but not yet going down: that is, a point at which the slope becomes zero. Now, if only there was a formula for the slope, he could simply set it equal to zero and determine where that point in time was! With that motivation, Newton developed a way to transform an equation of motion, for example, a parabola for the path of the thrown stone, into another equation for the slope, which is a straight line, if we ignore air friction. Once that is done, it is a simple matter to set the latter to zero and solve for the time at which the highest point is reached and then calculate the maximumheight reached by the stone.

Sir Isaac Newton’s discovery of the calculus was aimed at creating methods of solving problems that existed for a long time in the field of mathematics that was more powerful. One of his discoveries in calculus was the optics which was the study of white light. He also discovered the colour spectrum. His experiments that used the concept of calculus and involved light are the ones that first made him famous.

Calculus is one of the achievements that an intellectual should have. It can be used in providing solutions to problems that we encounter daily in mathematics and that do not have alternative ways of solving them. This makes us able to predict the behaviour of some aspects of life in the real world. Newton developed calculus as he also wanted us to have a sense of the beauty of life that is brought about by mathematics and that we could view mathematics as an art. He developed calculus, not for his benefit alone but also for future students of mathematics. He said that any reader who wanted to prove something in mathematics could find it with the use of calculus.

Unlike any other individual in history, Sir Isaac Newton made the most contribution to scientific developments. He surpassed all the great gains that the other scientific minds. His scientific contribution in science includes the invention of gravity, the binomial theorem, the laws of motion and the famous mathematical concept of calculus.


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Hilfer, Rudolf, ed. Applications of fractional calculus in physics. Vol. 35, no. 12. Singapore: World Scientific, 2000.

Trepte, Sabine, Leonard Reinecke, Nicole B. Ellison, Oliver Quiring, Mike Z. Yao and Marc Ziegele. “A cross-cultural perspective on the privacy calculus.” Social Media+ Society 3, no. 1 (2017): 2056305116688035.

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Will the professor find out I didn’t write the paper myself?

Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.

What if the paper is plagiarized?

We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.

When will I get my paper?

You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.

Will anyone find out that I used your services?

We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.

How our Assignment  Help Service Works

1.      Place an order

You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.

2.      Pay for the order

Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.

3.      Track the progress

You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.

4.      Download the paper

The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.

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