To simulate the skiing force between the snow and the ski is a decisive action that requires decomposition of the reaction force to penetration force which is a shear force and friction as well as usual to the surface of the snow. This study developed two portable devices to measure the penetration and shear force for snow compacted on groomed slopes. We determine the force of the shear by measuring the tangential load when the snow starts falling while the measuring of penetration force takes place during the penetration depth of the ski tool. Results of the 236 penetration and 108 shear experiments show that penetration force is directly proportional to the volume of the length o the ski tool multiplied by the penetration depth. The proportionality constants in the experiments were the snow hardness (HV) and failure shear stress (SF) where the SF ranges between 0.04 and 0.40 mm-2 while the HV varies between 0.04 and 90 N mm-3. The maximum deviation in this experiment derived from computed and real trajectories were less than 1% out the total length of the runs.
Skiing is an exciting sport both for completion and recreation purpose. Thus, engineers and other researches need to give real-time and practical advice to improve the performance of the skiers through improved skiing conditions. The improvement will only be possible if the researchers can determine the correct properties of the skis, the actual condition skiing environment as well as the right measurement tools. Otherwise, the advice given to the skiers or the skiing community on the snow parameters may not be a true reflection of the situation on the ground
Results from the snow hardness experiments conducted indicate that there is a direct proportionality between the vertical contact stress and the penetration depth. The volume of the snow displaced is also proportional to the reaction force of the snow. On the other hand, the results from the failure shear stress, that measured the snow density (p)and the penetrometer hardness Hp’ the penetrometer hardness measurements were from 8.0 to 47.0mm and a mean of 24.8 mm. In contrast, the snow density was 8.0 to 47.0 mm, with a mean of 24.8 kg m-3. There was a significant relationship between the failure shear stress (SF), and snow hardness (p) recorded at (p value<00.1).
Importance (Future Use Directions)
Considering the components of snow are ice crystals, enclosed air and water when taking the measurements of the simulation at the site is quite hard compared to the skiing site because of the weather conditional and other environmental factors. Another limitation in these experiments that call for improvement is the simplicity of the devices which can only give basic snow properties such as edge angle as well as the shear velocity and depth. From the study, it is also hard to tell whether the results registered are correct since there is no full data to inform whether or not the ski has transitioned or switched from failure shear stress to dynamic shear. Another limitation recorded in the study is the inability to verify the effect of failure shear force dependence on the edge angle. The practice applies mainly to machining, which is very unpopular for snow and ice. Finally, it is also vital to investigate is the effects that are dependent on skiing velocities like the snow damping and dynamic shear force for the penetration force. This investigation is necessary because the experiments take place in static environments which are not the case in the ski racing.
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