Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a Bacterium which is encapsulated, rod-shaped, and Gram-negative. It causes diseases in animals and plants and also affects humans. It belongs to the Proteobacteria phylum, Gammaproteabacteria class, and Pseudomonadaceae family. Its higher classification is Pseudomonas. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a type species in its group. It is a free-living bacterium commonly found in soil and water. It is Gram negative iod measuring 0.5 to 0.8 Um by 3.0 Um. All strains are almost motile and have a single polar flagellum. Its appearance is pearlescent with a grape-like, and tortilla-like odour.it has a single circular chromosome. It has a relatively large genome, which makes it encode a large number of enzymes used for various metabolic pathways. About 8% of that genome encodes the regulatory cells that enable the bacterium to adapt to complex growth environments. The type of microscope used to scan this bacterium is the electronic microscope.
Virulence of this bacterium depends on extracellular cell-associated factors. Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacterium plays a potential role in virulence factors in UTIs. The first factor is LasA, which is characterized by reduced elastolytic activity. It plays the role of breaking down host tissues, which could then facilitate the invasion of amino acid metabolism. LasB, which is necessary for activation of LasA aids in Biofilm formation and immunodulation. It also helps in breaking down host tissues and elastin. Phospholipase A releases fatty acids while phospholipase C releases phosphatesters, which are commonly found in UTI isolates. They could generate ROS. The bacterium also produces toxins like Exoenzyme. Exotocin A is responsible for tissue necrosis, while phospholipase C is thermolabile haemolysin. Exoenzyme S plays a pathogenic role disruption of immunoglobulin A and G. it also leads to depolymerization of actin filaments and contributes to resistance of macrophages. The bacterium produces proteases that cause tissue necrosis and bleeding.
Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections are mostly treated with antibiotics. However, in other cases, such as for people who are exposed to healthcare settings might develop resistance. This makes the infections more challenging to treat.Pseudomonas aeruginosa causes nosocomial infections. It causes bacteremia, which is an infection of the blood and most of the severe infections caused by this bacterium. It causes folliculitis when it affects the skin. It also causes urinary tract infections and pneumonia, which are infections of the lungs. The bacterium affects the soft tissue, urinary, central nervous, and gastrointestinal systems. It also affects the bones and joints, skin, ears, eye, blood, and heart. Infection of Pseudomonas aeruginosa occurs when someone is exposed to conditions that favor the virus(Sokatch, 2012).
The use of infected contact lenses
An example is when a person uses infected contact lenses while they are healthy, they might get infected. If an infection caused by this bacterium is left untreated, the condition can be life-threatening. The infections can bring about pneumonia and UTIs. However, people with a healthy system are not severely affected by this infection, unlike unhealthy people. The bacterium causes chronic infections in bronchiectasis and OCPD. The bacterium is an opportunistic pathogen and can be found in the skin of some healthy people. It has been isolated from the stool and throat of non-hospitalized patients. A 35-year-old patient who had a two-day history of shortness of breath and chest tightness was admitted to ICU since he had worsening dyspnea.
The patient was previously healthy with no history of the contagious disease, but two days later, he started experiencing coughs and sore throat. Six hours before he was admitted, he developed dyspnea, chest tightness, difficulty lying down. After physical examinations, the results were 150 bpm, T 38.9C, SpO2 99%, BP 136/91 mmHg. Nebulized bronchodilators were administered without any improvement, and he was transferred to the emergency unit, where he presented chest retractions, ABG, and undetectable blood pressure. He was admitted to ICU after developing bloody sputum, laryngeal edema, and a congested airway. Results from the lab revealed normal head CT, patchy shadows in the right inferior and superior lobes. He also developed resistance to carbapenems According to how the patient’s condition progressed quickly. In a short span of days, the pathogen could have been present since there was also resistance to antibiotics.
Presently, there is no available vaccine for this bacterium caused by infections. However, some vaccines are undergoing clinical evaluation. Potential targets will be developed in the future. Since the bacterium is mostly spread in hospital settings, specific precautions against infections should be followed to prevent spreading. Some of them include wearing gloves and gowns when entering rooms with infected patients, hand hygiene, following proper cleaning procedures. Cleaning and disinfection should be carried out with diversified disinfectants(Frank, 2012).
Pseudomonas aeruginosa may become MDR (multidrug-resistant). Tabobactum is one of the antibiotics that is used against MDR strains. It has proven to have the ability to potent vitro activity against most of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains. This includes ESBL but not strains producing carbapenemase. Clinical use has also been proposed to the usage of ceftolozane-tazobactum for treating complicated urinary tract infections and intra-abdominal infections(Alan R. Hauser, 2012). In a healthcare system, those who have low immunity and are unhealthy are likely to get infected by the Pseudonomas aeruginosa bacterium. It also affects old people since their health is not stable, and they are not immune to a lot of infections. As much as there are many Pseudomonas aeruginosa, only specific produce human diseases. These are glanders, andmelioidosis.
Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections can be treated with combinations of antipseudomonal beta-lactam and aminoglycoside. Carbapenems and antipseudomonal quinolones are used together with aminoglycoside. This is with exception to cases with patients who are febrile and have neutropenia. In such cases, monotherapy with ceftazidime or even carbapenem is administered. Two drug regimen is always recommended for these infections. The mechanism of action of this bacterium is restricted outer membrane permeability. Efflux systems pump the antibiotics out of the cells and produce enzymes that inactivate enzymes. Two factors make specific combinations of antibiotics efficient. Synergism between the combined drugs makes the two drugs enhance each other’s effects. This increases the rate of population extinction of the virus leading to a clearance rate. Collateral sensitivity is an evolved trade-off. When the evolution of resistance to a specific drug increases, there is also an increase in susceptibility to another drug (Barbosa C, 2018). This limits the ability of the bacteria to adapt to an antibiotic pair. Therefore, drug combinations chosen should lead to evolved collateral sensitivity and interaction synergistically.
Alan R. Hauser, J. R. (2012). Severe Infections caused by Pseudomonas Aeruginosa.
Barbosa C, B. R. (2018). Antibiotic combination efficacy.
Frank, D. W. (2012). Pseudomonas Aeruginosa, Biology, Genetics, and Host-pathogen.
Sokatch, J. (2012). The Biology of Pseudomonas.
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