Impact of a Parenting with Mental Illness on Children

Impact of a Parenting with Mental Illness on Children


Parental mental illness has the ability to significantly affect the lives of progenies who are solely dependent on their parents in one way or another while the parents suffer from the disease. Some of the paternal aspects that may affect the children directly include inheritance of genetic traits by the toddlers, intrauterine environments, gynecological acquaintance to apprehension and despair, and risks of unswerving revelation to parental mental ailment itself. Other external effects include social and pecuniary pilferages and marriage issues which are associated with the mental ailment that is susceptible to detrimental effects in the lives of toddlers and the parents too. Many researches on the impacts of parents with mental illness on their children have been commenced with much attention being accorded on postnatal depression. Research findings have proved parental mental illness to downgrade parent-child attachment hence exposing children to harsh environments other than parental environments. In addition, child cognitive functions, emotional, behavioral and social development has been compromised too. Furthermore, these children have been subjected by the condition to the risk of evolving psychiatric disorders during childhood, adolescence and eventually in adulthood. It is therefore very crucial for prevention and intervention to be administered at an early stage before the conditions become chronic in both the parent and the child. In most cases, women who are termed to be susceptible should be identified, isolated and offered special treatment and care during the antenatal stage. This task is aimed at reducing the impacts of parental mental illness in children.

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Genetic factors, child development, parent-infant interaction, parental mental illness and  intrauterine environment.


Mental illness refers to the diverse range of mental health conditions and disorders that have the tendency of killing mood, thinking and behavior in human beings. They are characterized by conditions such as depression, anxiety disorders, devastation in eating habits, addictive behaviors and schizophrenia among other features. Several individuals suffer mental illness and disorders from time to time with a different degree of suffering depending on the extent and the cause of the ailment. The symptoms associated with the disease are realistic when the prevailing signs subject the patient to frequent stress and affect the functionality of the brain. This kind of illness is associated with miserable lives as it causes problems in the daily lives of the impoverished such as school, family, work and relationships. However, this symptoms can also be managed through the combination of medical facets and counselling, a situation known as talk therapy or psychotherapy (Reupert, et al., 2015). Following the fact that mental illness is a devastating ailment, parents with mental illness have proved to suffer a lot with impacts being felt on the upbringing of their children. Mental illness among parents has become a common form of mental devastation in the US where approximately one in five people, translating to 19 percent of adults suffer from the same form of illness. Moreover, one person among 24 individuals, a translation of 4.1 percent have been experiencing serious mental illness in the US. Also, one individual in 12 persons, translating to 8.5 percent have been reported to have diagnosable substance use disorder. However, mental illness is a treatable condition and can rejuvenate victims into the track of their day to day life chores (Reupert, et al., 2015). This research is going to focus on the impacts of a parent with mental illness on a child. The study has been compelled by the sidelines facing several children who are brought up and provided by parents with mental illness.

Following the fact that mental health is the key aspect to the establishment of emotions, thinking, communication, resilience, self-esteem and learning, mental health is crucial towards sustaining relationships, personal and emotional wellbeing in the contribution of parents to their children and the general community. In the United States, there is an assumption that approximately a quarter of parents who have been diagnosed with mental illness have children who are dependent on them (Reupert, et al., 2015). The mechanism involved in the study on the mitigation of severe outcomes in children of parents with mental illness has been termed to be multifaceted with a close relationship with each other. There are indications by subsidiary protocols involving parenting, child and ecological factors that lead to the mental illness among parents thus causing the packages of impacts on children.

Goals and aims of the study

From various reviews being conducted, it is true that the perception and the understanding of the states of their parents’ mental health and the most probable effects on the children of this parents, especially on offspring adaptive functioning. More so, behaviors in which the children adjust to parental mental health challenges which can result in severe risks and suppleness. In order to discourse this issues, the study is obliged to address the following aims:

  • Elucidate the impacts and relationship that exist between parental mental illness and child suffering from the same ailment.
  • A thorough description of the child’s perception and the understanding of parental mental health issues and how the issue has affected them while they were children and as they grow up through adolescence and eventually to adulthood.
  • Demonstrating the impacts of the parents with mental illness to the children in terms of compromised academic activities and personality.
  • The third aim is to assess the perception of the children on the implication of parental psychopathology on own lives as they grow up and also on several facets regarding their adult functionality.
  • Citing evidence with regards to the matter that parental mental health issues are significant contributors of risks factors for child abuse and neglect.
  • Finally, the study is going to focus on the parental mental health issues on the developmental process of children.

Parental factors

Genetic ground

There is a clear and direct antenatal effect on children who are associated with the conformation of the genetic makeup of the parents. It is true that children with one parent suffering from schizophrenia exhibit a probability of 13 percent likelihood of evolving mental sickness. However, if the paternities are susceptible to suffering or are affected with the ailment, the probability of the children to suffer the disease is 45 percent. Offspring of parents who are infected with the bipolar syndrome have an upsurge of suffering from both bipolar and unipolar at the rate of 7.8 percent whilst having 11.4 percent tendency of suffering depression (Bee, et al., 2014). For children of parents who suffer from unipolar depression, they are highly susceptible to 9.1 percent risk to inherit unipolar depression with the reduced tendencies of exhibiting bipolar disorders.

Intrauterine environment

According to studies done in the United States on the parental mental ailment, findings indicated that maternal antenatal stress has been deemed to be the cause of stress to the offspring that will end up developing mental illness upon growing up to be adults. The commotion incorporates emotional and behavioral disturbance with the accompaniment of impaired cognitive and neurological progress. There are several evidences being put in place to support this study in humans. Findings from research studies on human beings indicate that motherly and fetal phases of the distress hormone cortisol associate (Bee, et al., 2014). This suggests that the motherly cortisol have the ability to cause an alteration in the placenta to compel the revelation in the fetus expressively. A connection is ascertained amid the antenatal apprehension and hitches related to behaviors which include hypersensitivity and lack of attention in children that will transform to cause mental illness when the children grow up to be parents.

Furthermore, anxieties and depression that are developed have an association with obstetric problems such as low birth mass and premature births. As a result, there is the acceptance of the existing connotation of obstetric problems and the infection of schizophrenia when the children grow up to be adults and bear children(Bee, et al., 2014). When parents who suffer from mental illness conceive, there is the tendency that the obstetric complications in the children that will be delivered will be exposed to the development of schizophrenia and other complications in relation to mental illness thus resulting to abnormalities among the infants.

Parenting and parent-infant interaction

During delivery, newborns are at a high risk following the direct acquaintance to the mental health of the parents and related psychological adversities, with specifications being on the difficulties faced during parenting that can emerge as a result. In most cases, offspring of parents who suffer from schizophrenia have the tendency of being subjected to the risks of explicit psychotic signs and symptoms (Bee, et al., 2014). They are also more probable to suffer from downfalls such as the absence of emotional warmth, lack of attention and the impairment of maternal sensitivity and responsiveness to the signal portrayed by the infant and self-absorption and associated invasiveness.

Moreover, depression has the ability to directly affect the receptiveness of the mother and sensitivity of the newborn during the interaction between the mother and the toddler. On the other hand, compromising the tendency and capacity mutually regulate the interaction between the mother and the infant, there will be an absolute intrusive relation. Mothers with temperament disorder have the tendency to develop intrusive insensitivity to their toddlers.

Factors that are attributed by the environment

Parents who are diagnosed with mental health ailments are being deemed to a greater risk of socioeconomic disadvantages such as unemployment and marital issues which is a collection of matters, which in the further analysis have a great association with adversities on child outcomes. Most relations are subjected to suffering from regards to the deliverance of a child. This has a direct link with mental illness in one of the parents but in most cases when the female parent suffers from the disease (Bee, et al., 2014). Several studies have approved that the degree of a parental relationship has been asserted by psychiatric outcomes for toddlers. For the higher social classes, there is the appearance of exertion of a defensive impact in relation to the intellectual progress in infants of mothers who are depressed postnatally.

Child factors

There are unpredictable aspects that compromise the mother-child mutuality. Children that are assumed to have a difficult temperament have a higher tendency to be influenced by the focus of parental disapproval and aggression (Bee, et al., 2014). Moreover, irritability in toddlers have the chances of increasing the risks of postnatal depression among children. This implies that the most important protective factor to be recommended in children is intelligence, social and cognitive skills throughout their growth.

Effects of parental mental ailment.

Various evidence has been put forward with the aim of demonstrating parental mental sickness to have caused severities in almost every facet of teenage growth and development. This influence begins from the tie of revelation along their lives to adulthood and towards parental salvage. These aspects are typical through the consideration of the following factors:

Child attachment to the first caregiver.

The first relationship of a toddler with the prime caregiver is the female parent in most cases. This affair serves as the model for mutuality between the parent and the child which facilitates the modification and progress of the teenager’s disposition and the adaptive competences to future stressors (Stein, et al., 2014). A female parent who is passionately available and is responsible for responding to the needs of their children with warmth and sensitivity which is the basis of the toddler’s intellect of identification, self-esteem and emotional regulation. These aspects are deemed for securing of attachment of formation of the child. Therefore, maternal disparities in childhood can attribute to apprehensive attachment formation. As a result, this leads to the experience of difficulties in the creation of future associations. Also, augmentations in the rates of anxious attachment formation have been approved to be rampant in parents with schizophrenia.


There are substantial and durable mental discrepancies confirmed in offspring brought up by mothers who experienced depression during their initial stages of postpartum (Stein, et al., 2014). These adversities are contributed by aspects such as psychiatric-related illness, conflicts in marriages and home and workplace backgrounds.

Mental illness in the children


As offspring of parents who suffer from schizophrenia grow older, the chances of increased development of schizophrenia spectrum disorders such as personality disorders and schizotypal disorder are observable. This aspect also is attributed to the presence of increased genetic loading (Stein, et al., 2014). It was asserted that children of parents who suffer from the bipolar affective disorder are more susceptible to suffering mental sickness than offspring with parents who do not have or have minimal history regarding mental illness.

Effective disorder and depression

According to longitudinal studies on the effect of parents with mental illness on children, it is asserted that teenagers of parents who have effective syndromes have shown consistent disorders of advanced rates of conduct disorders, depressive disorders and disorders that are associated with anxieties which are faced by the same demographic characteristics without concerning the affected parents.

Postnatal depression and anxiety

In situations where mothers associated with attention discrepancy hyperactivity disorder in their descendants, offspring of parentages who suffer obsessive-compulsive exhibit increased risks of suffering from ailments that are related to anxiety in children and adults.

Prediction of poor outcomes

Factors such as substance abuse have resulted to externalizing problems during early childhood which are associated to the prediction of poor outcomes among adolescents such as declining education performance, compromised self-esteem, depressions, increased use of drugs and compromised social insolences (Stein, et al., 2014). In this essence, children of those parents who are dependent on alcohol and any other comorbid despair are termed to display advanced rates of mental challenges such as disorders, depressions and drug use.

Child abuse and neglect

The level of the relationship between parents with mental ailment issues is distinctive from inspiring care that will lead to fatalities. In most cases, women who are associated with mental illness do not subject any risk of thoughtful maltreatment and neglect to their toddlers (Stein, et al., 2014). However, there are several aspects that are closely associated with mental illness that are in relation to mothers of infants which have the probability of paving way for child safety and welfare. Among these facets are the psychotic believes that involve the progenies, social deprivation with disputes among parents with the accompaniment of lack of support connections, chronic damages of functionality and the antiquity of the parental maltreatment to children.

In the above perspective, it can be deduced that the effect of parental mental illness at the family life and also the well-being of children are significant to some extent. This is justified by the fact that those children with parents who suffer from mental illness are highly susceptible to develop social, emotional and behavioral problems (Stein, et al., 2014). On the other hand, there are settings in which youths are brought up that contribute to the development and the emotional well-being regarding concerns of genetic matters.

Challenges faced by children with parents who suffer from mental illness

As a result of the parental mental illness, children are faced with a lot of challenges such as;

The propensity of the children to take appropriate levels of responsiveness in taking care of themselves and taking control of the entire household. This emerged through the fact that parents who are infuriated with the mental illness struggle with the threats that the disease has posed to their health instead of concentrating on the welfare of their children (Stein, et al., 2014). Despite the fact that parents are the sole providers and custodians of their progenies, victims of mental illness run short of ideas and the consent of the responsibilities as parents. Children under this conditions always exhibit poor health states due to lack of proper food, poor education attainment as they will have none to gather for their education among other fundamental needs and rights as children who have a lot of things to excurse in life as they grow up.

The second challenge that was faced by children with parents who suffer from mental illness end up blaming themselves with the perspective that they are the main cause of their parents deteriorated mental health conditions (Hiscock, et al, 2015). This includes the presumption that most children connect all the blames to themselves for subjecting their parents to difficulties, the experience of anger and anxiety and the remorse that led to the parents getting depressed and eventually suffer mental illness. These children will also end up having the same frustrations thus leading to a good number of them to develop the same kind of mental disease.

Another challenge that faced offspring of parents with the mental ailment is the act of feeling embarrassed and getting ashamed of the stigma that is associated with their parents’ mental illness. In most cases, these children are isolated or even isolate themselves basing on peer pressures and the intolerable pressures from the community members at large.

Another trending issue bothering children whose parents suffer from mental illness is the increased risk of challenges related to school, drug substance use and poor social relationships have been on the toll. Despite the challenges faced by children with parents with mental illness concerning genetic and environmental setbacks, many of them still managed to accomplish certain obligations in life (Hiscock, et al, 2015). For instance, success is directly related to the number of strengths and challenges that surrounds a family. When a family experiences a greater number of strengths accompanied by minimal challenges, children are likely to succeed well compared to those households which experience a lot of challenges with the accompaniment of minimal strengths. Conferring to various researchers on the matter of parental mental illness to children should entail opportunities to curb the challenges and facilitate strengths and eventually cause improvement and increase the tendencies for the children to succeed.

Literature Review

Recent estimates suggest that 12.1% of the United States children aged below the age of 12 have been reported to have a mentally ill parent. Also, this toddlers might have been exposed to more than one psychiatric disorder and at least 78% of the parents report getting minimal or no mental health attention. In order to affirm much of the experiences of these children, aspects that are known concerning to these children based on various researches on the high risks for developing mental ailment and behavioral adversities which go hand in hand with the illness that their parents suffer from (Hiscock, et al, 2015). Despite the fact that genetic factors have been attached to the issue of parental mental illness and child suffering from the impacts of the illness, other factors such as family status, for instance, poverty levels and stigmatization also contribute to the suffering in children.

The best indicators to determine the positive functioning during adulthood of children who lived with parents with mental illness is the ability of the children to persevere the severity of the illness and the adversities of the effects associated with. Beyond all the studies that had been done concerning the risks children have been subjected to by having parents with mental illness, dominant discourse of risks and resilience is evident all along. As a result, there has been little research on how actual day to day lives of toddlers are affected by parental mental illness. There is little knowledge about how these toddlers interact with peers, their parents, educators and healthcare practitioners. Moreover, there is no clear illustration on how the aspect of parental mental illness influence the health and social care performance that facilitates or inhibit the social lives of families.

Currently, this gap has been addressed in this study basing on the understanding on the retrospective autobiographical accounts and artistic works. Regarding the two perspectives, the view of parents and that of the children, it was found that parents depict childhood memories of frightening, embarrassing and adopting preoccupying parental behaviors.

Hinshaw (2004), a psychologist suggested from an experience of his own children that the impacts of mental illness of parents on children have been underappreciated glossily. He recalls an experience of his children citing claims that they feel some sense of anxiety, isolation, abandonment, anger, guilt and shame among other vices with reference to susceptibility (Hiscock, et al, 2015). He recommends that unless a tangible mitigation is done on caregiving of such children, they will be more vulnerable to the disease more than their parents.

According to Hey et al, (2001), mothers with depressions at three months have the ability to affect children up to the age of 11 years. This was evidenced by the accompaniment of significance of lowered intelligence quotient (IQ) of the children and lowered attention difficulties. Regarding cognition issues, boys were reported to be the most affected than girls specifically when it comes to the concern about the performance of IQ (Patterson, et al., 2017). However, the distinction was encountered upon the analysis and prior control of the social disadvantages, parental IQ and maternal mental health problems.

Another study was done by Hammen et al, (1990) which majored on the examination of the impacts of severe unipolar parental despair and consistent mental illness on the children. It involved children aged between 8 to 16 years, and a follow-up study took place for consecutive three years (Patterson, et al., 2017). Findings from the researchers indicate that those children of mothers who are effectively ill mentally indicated a higher rate of observed disorders when compared to those children of mothers who do not suffer any mental illness. Furthermore, there were multiple disorders that were observed and affirmed to be common throughout this groups despite the difference in parental mental illness history and general family background. Eventually, an average of 2.6 diagnoses per child was reported and claims were cited that this rate was such steady and demanding.

To be more specific, there information that illustrate that 45% of children with depressed mothers were found to fall under the category of major depressive disorder (MDD) while on the other hand, only 11% of children with mothers who do not suffer from mental illness being reported to have diagnosed major depressive disorder (MDD). Arguments from recently done researches have indicated that during previous moments, where psychiatric illnesses could steadfastly be measured among children. Findings from this measurement showed that the rates of psychopathology were suggestively higher in children who have depressed female parents compared to those children who had non-depressed mothers where this rates ranged between 41 to 77%. Additionally, Hammen affirmed that the rate of despair in school-age and teenage offspring of those parents who are distressed as a result of mental illness are three times higher than those of non-depressed parents which translates to a rate that ranges between 20% to 41%.

According to Murray et al, (2003), children with parents who suffer from mental illness experience higher rates of psychopathology and also were found to be exposed to higher risks of several cognitive, social and other adverse developmental challenges. This is illustrated by an example of a mother whom during the postnatal period had the susceptibility to a wide range of long-term impairment in child effectiveness (Patterson, et al., 2017). Furthermore, Murray et al affirmed that neurological, infancy, cognitive and regulatory disturbances have been realized to be common in toddlers who were brought up by mothers who suffered from depression and mental illness. In addition, the study found that the quality of attachment that exists between parents and children is negatively implicated by the parental mental health issues. This implies that those children of mentally ill parents especially mothers have higher rates of devastated attachment compared to those toddlers whose parents are mentally sober.

In another study that was done by Murray, et al., (1996), children who experience continuous cognitive impairment do so and the prevalence becomes high with the fact that other external factors that contribute to the devastation exist. The first problem that was reported to be on the toll among children with parents who suffer from mental illness is the exhibition of issues that are associated with the development of language in the preschool. This is attributed to the loss of parent-child attachment. In most cases, these children end up learning under special education programs or rather operate under special needs programs. This decision by educators is reached at following the aspect that the children display severe problems in school when compared to those children who were raised by parents who are not mentally ill.

According to Weissman, et al., (1997), the outcomes of multiple offspring in families have not been put into consideration as far as impacts of parents with mental illness to children is concerned (Patterson, et al., 2017). Majority of studies ignore this perception but science indicate that at adulthood, a huge percentage of this children end up displaying outcomes that are closely related to psychiatric diagnosis and symptoms. Whilst, in this case, other studies indicated outcomes that children of mothers who are mentally ill are susceptible to lowered child functioning while at home, workplace and even within marital jurisdiction when it is time to shoulder that responsibilities. This concept is controversial when compared to those children who are brought up by parents who do not suffer from any kind of mental ailment throughout their lives.

According to Quinton and Rutter, (1984), effective disorders among parents are highly connected to higher rates of depressive disorders and anxiety disorders which in the long run end up with vast linkage with what parents went through at some point of their past lives. From this premises, demographic characteristics end up being altered and portrayed among the children without the notice or consent of the parents. This study affirmed that psychiatric risks to children of parents who are victims of mental illness were found to be greatest upon the exposure of the child to co-morbid parent temperament disorder with highest levels of revelation to behaviors that are weird and hostile (Patterson, et al., 2017). To make it more clear, the increased rates of conduct disorder among children with parental mental illness is more likely to occur among children of those parents who were vulnerable to antisocial behaviors and personality.

According to Peterson et al, (1992), postpartum despair and anxiety in mothers is a clear indication of the association that exists with attention deficit hyperactivity, a disastrous sickness in the offspring of these mothers. Moreover, children of parents who are susceptible to obsessive-compulsive disorder and those disorders that are associated with anxiety and social disadvantages. Persona et al. found that this issue leads to compromised parent-child interaction problems, especially increased cases of indiscipline (Patterson, et al., 2017). As a result of the above-mentioned downfalls bothering the prediction of poor outcome, the most prevalent outcome is the externalizing problems that are rampant during early childhood which is being reported to be the best predictor of outcome in older children. These outcomes are highly portrayed in the children and include poor academic performance and poor self-esteem among others as stated in the introduction.

With reference on how parental mental illness are transmitted to children, three studies where adopted to focus on this issue. These are The Family studies, the Twin studies and the Adoption study which reflected the uniqueness and the role that is played by hereditary in passing mental illness from parent to children. According to the Twin studies, twins that are monozygotic display suggestively higher acceptance rates to the development of schizophrenia and anxiety more easily compared to those twins who are dizygotic. The study was affirmed by Hanson et al, 1977 and Andrews et al, 1990 respectively.

According to Weissman, 1997, on the aspect of Family studies, adults who portray effective disorders and those who stand as the first order kinsfolks also conform and display a strong genetic linkage between the parental efficient syndrome and psychopathology in the toddlers. In this study, heritability has been reported to influence an approximate 37% of the cases that have been put forward referring to impacts of parental mental disorders (Patterson, et al., 2017). From the family study, it can also be deduced that the incidence of affective disorders in relatives who suffer from depressions associated with mental illness is highly prevalent than those incidences of mental illness in the ordinary and the general population.

Finally, Oyserman et al. (2000) conducted a study on parenting as a major aspect that attributed to the most negative impacts of parental mental ailment to offspring. The study found that depression is the most severe devastation which is being reported to be on the toll. In this case, there is an implication that most parents who are depressed have poor abilities to guide, support and nurture their children wholly as parents. As a result, the children end up taking the role of negotiating on important developmental tasks which in the long run end up performing poorly in any of the tasks that they had to intervene due to their parents’ disability.


In order to elucidate a better understanding of the influence of parental mental sickness on progenies, qualitative research was adopted as the most suitable method that can elaborate how children and adolescents interpret diverse life situations concerning parental mental illness. This follows the significance of contexts of all human life experiences as being ascribed by young participants of research which in most cases is affected by individualized levels of interactions which are reported to be wider in social, economic and political arenas.


The study incorporated 8 participants who were in their 30th year where in which they were engaged in a three longitudinal study of female parents and their offspring for description and analysis. Each participant was to mention one or more of their most stressful experience while growing up in a family with parents who to some extent experienced some kind of mental illness either wholly or partially. They were to highlight in their experiences and challenges both directly and indirectly from the perspective of children from families with parents who suffered mental illness.

The study involved seven female and one male participant with an average age of 39 years. The method employed in collecting information was the interview. The participants were married and each had at least two children aged between 3 to 18 years. In terms of academic performance, one participant had already completed a GED level only, two others possessed high school diplomas and the rest had a conferment from two year period from the college.

During the interview, the participants were asked about their perception of mental health problems and diagnosis throughput their lives as impacted by parental mental illness. The second part of the interview concentrated on the understanding of the mental health problems and perception of adjusting to them. Thirdly, the participants were asked about their timelines and highlighting the most stressful moments for them and their parents.


Concerning the participants’ perception and understanding of parental mental illness, all the participants showed varied experiences of depressive episodes among their parents. One participant explained that she faced a stressful moment when her brother recklessly died of cancer as a result of lacking proper attention from the mother who was mentally ill.

Another participant demonstrated that his mother went through a series of family discomfort which included separation and later on divorce. He asserted that this act happened to cause a lot of disturbance to his normal life as a child and also academic aspects. Other participants laid down contrasting narrations about their experience with their parental mental illness. They were illustrating about their parents suffering from the personality disorder, depressions and suicidal tendencies that subjected them to the same suffering and also introducing another severity which is substance abuse.


Since the goal of the research was to scrutinize impacts of parental mental sickness on offspring, the aim of affirming discernments and understanding of mental illness in parents by toddlers was justified by the narratives that were put forward by the participants. It is true that most parents with mental illness do not consider discussing their mental health status with their children. In the long run, most children suffer the same mental ailment as a result of confusion and regrets that they could have known the same issue at early stages.

Regarding the way children were coping with the situation of parental mental illness, there are various ways portrayed by the children. Children who adopted more adaptive adjusting strategies, for instance, keeping themselves busy in sports or other constructive activities managed to go through it well more than those who availed all their thoughts on the issue.


The study indicates that parental mental illness is attributed most among children by factors such as parenting, intrauterine environment, child factors, environmental factors and genetic grounds. Parenting and genetic factors are the core factors that attribute most of the development of mental illness in children as a result that parents suffer from the same ailment. Genetic grounding solely constitutes the passing of phenotypic and genotypic traits from the parent to the child by birth hence when the parent was mentally ill, then it is automatic that the child will possess the same traits. Concerning environmental factors, the type of surrounding that a child is brought up determines whether the child will be susceptible to mental illness or not. Parents who do not reconsider creating a conducive environment for their children despite their mental illness will end up availing an environment that will threaten the children to suffer from the same disease.

Parental mental illness has impacts on children of the same parents. This includes compromised self-esteem of the child, lowered academic achievement, decreased the functioning ability of the child and generalized poor outcomes as affirmed from the reviews of various studies. One of the worst effects of parental mental illness to children is the lack of responsiveness among children due to laxities and frustration caused by the condition of the parents’ mental health status.


Bee, P., Bower, P., Byford, S., Churchill, R., Calam, R., Stallard, P., … & Abel, K. (2014). The clinical effectiveness, cost-effectiveness and acceptability of community-based interventions aimed at improving or maintaining quality of life in children of parents with serious mental illness: a systematic review.

Hiscock, H., Sciberras, E., Mensah, F., Gerner, B., Efron, D., Khano, S., &Oberklaid, F. (2015). Impact of a behavioural sleep intervention on symptoms and sleep in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and parental mental health: randomised controlled trial. Bmj350, h68.

Patterson, G. R., DeBaryshe, B. D., & Ramsey, E. (2017). A developmental perspective on antisocial behavior. In Developmental and Life-course Criminological Theories (pp. 29-35). Routledge.

Reupert, A., Maybery, D., Nicholson, J., Göpfert, M., & Seeman, M. V. (Eds.). (2015). Parental psychiatric disorder: Distressed parents and their families. Cambridge University Press.

Stein, A., Pearson, R. M., Goodman, S. H., Rapa, E., Rahman, A., McCallum, M., … &Pariante, C. M. (2014). Effects of perinatal mental disorders on the fetus and child. The Lancet384(9956), 1800-1819.


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We have highlighted some of the most popular subjects we handle above. Those are just a tip of the iceberg. We deal in all academic disciplines since our writers are as diverse. They have been drawn from across all disciplines, and orders are assigned to those writers believed to be the best in the field. In a nutshell, there is no task we cannot handle; all you need to do is place your order with us. As long as your instructions are clear, just trust we shall deliver irrespective of the discipline.

Are your writers competent enough to handle my paper?

Our essay writers are graduates with bachelor's, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college degree. All our academic writers have a minimum of two years of academic writing. We have a stringent recruitment process to ensure that we get only the most competent essay writers in the industry. We also ensure that the writers are handsomely compensated for their value. The majority of our writers are native English speakers. As such, the fluency of language and grammar is impeccable.

What if I don’t like the paper?

There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.

Reasons being:

  • When assigning your order, we match the paper’s discipline with the writer’s field/specialization. Since all our writers are graduates, we match the paper’s subject with the field the writer studied. For instance, if it’s a nursing paper, only a nursing graduate and writer will handle it. Furthermore, all our writers have academic writing experience and top-notch research skills.
  • We have a quality assurance that reviews the paper before it gets to you. As such, we ensure that you get a paper that meets the required standard and will most definitely make the grade.

In the event that you don’t like your paper:

  • The writer will revise the paper up to your pleasing. You have unlimited revisions. You simply need to highlight what specifically you don’t like about the paper, and the writer will make the amendments. The paper will be revised until you are satisfied. Revisions are free of charge
  • We will have a different writer write the paper from scratch.
  • Last resort, if the above does not work, we will refund your money.

Will the professor find out I didn’t write the paper myself?

Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.

What if the paper is plagiarized?

We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.

When will I get my paper?

You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.

Will anyone find out that I used your services?

We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.

How our Assignment  Help Service Works

1.      Place an order

You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.

2.      Pay for the order

Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.

3.      Track the progress

You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.

4.      Download the paper

The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.

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