Ethical Issues in Organ Procurement and Transplantation.
The first organ transplant to be performed successfully was by Dr. Joseph Murray and his colleagues in Boston. It was done in 1954 by between identical twin brothers. Several ones had been done previously, but they were not successful. With the success and development of immunosuppressivedrugs, survival in transplants between unrelated people become rapidly developed. Ever since, organ transplantation has become a common practice in the medical field and is among the most demanded service in many countries. The number of people that wait for organ transplantation exceeds the number of donors and organs procured. The kind of demand that has been experienced in this area had led to many controversies and ethical issues associated with the process.
Organ transplantation has issues as early as determining the people eligible for transplantation. The qualifications that people have to meet so that they can be on the waiting list are sometimes questionable. A good example is the evaluation done on a person before they get on the waiting list for a kidney transplant. Some transplantation centers will do a renal evaluation, while others may include a cardiac assessment. These differences mean that some centers might reject some recipients that will be accepted in other centers. Patients now face the dilemma of where to seek help and where they are more likely to be approved for transplantation. Therefore, the difference in the selection criteria in countries or even hospital is still an ethical issue that is facing organ procurement and transplantation.
Other issues surrounding this area
Other issues surrounding this area of medicine include the living and dead donors. The criteria to choose the donors that can give organs while living has faced a lot of challenges. The tenants of medicine dictate that a practitioner should not harm any patient they handle. Therefore, this leaves them with no choicebut to choose healthy, compatible donors for the recipients. The considerations that have to be put in place before verifying an individual eligible for transplantation also differ from hospital levels to international. Some would reject donors acceptable to others, which has been a debatable area for some time, and still, there are no clear guidelines to reduce controversies.
Dead donors also face medicine, religious, and moral critics. Most of the places where the practice has been adopted still debate on the best methods that are supposed to be used to declare a donor dead and ready to donate. The two conventional methods used include the determination of brain death(donation after neurologic determination of death- DNDD) and determination of cardiac death (donation after circulatory determination of death-DCDD). Both methods have raised concerns. Most people differ on which is the best way of declaring a person dead and ready to donate their organ. Most places the brain death is mostly used, but its morality is still questioned in many areas.
Financial incentives and organ trade are also some of the ethical issues being faced in this sector. In most countries, selling organs is illegal, while in others it is not. The legality of the practice, however, its questionable, is it a way to improve the number of donations or is it immoral. Countries were this is legal face a lot of transplantation tourism where people go there to buy organs. It has been foundlifesaving to those who can afford it. The question is if then its legalized in most countries, what will the financially challenged do? Also, giving financial incentives to increase the number of voluntary donors has been considered as a way of increasing the number of donors. However, in most places, it is not practiced because it is though to be a wrong way of luring people to give out their organs.in the states and Europe, the above issue of organ transplantation has been faced, and it continues to be a challenge in the medical departments in those countries
The above argument is based on the article published on December 29th, 2016, by Richard Howard and Daniella Cornell. It is about the ethical issues in organ procurement and transplantation. It addressesthe main areas where there is an issue in this area, from donor selection to international organ trade. The chapter where this issue is addressed concludes that so long organ shortage continues, there will always be ethical issues to challenge the medical practice considering that previous approaches have been futile, new methods would be a right approach into solving these ethical issues
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