managing building construction Projects in Iran
102.2 Causes of Delay big projects.
112.3 Construction Delay: Quantitative Analysis
112.4 Construction Delay: Developing Economy
122.4.1 Poor ICT groundwork
122.4.2 Unacquaintedness of local personnel with ICT in remote construction sites
122.4.3 No financial justification for ICT training of personnel in small construction sites
122.4.4 Lack of sensation transfer in some electronic communication devices
122.4.5 Inapplicable software outputs
132.4.6 Inapplicable software outputs
132.4.7 Complicated administrative process for ICT development
Poor reserve system in remote construction places
Recommendations to improve construction management in buildings
Widespread deployment and use of interoperable technology applications
203.2.1 Improved job-site efficiency through more effective interfacing of people,
213.2.2 Greater use of prefabrication, preassembly, modularization, and off-site
Advanced, widespread use of demonstration installations.
Advanced, widespread use of demonstration installations.:
Effective performance measurement to drive efficiency and support innovation.
Preassembly, Prefabrication & Modular Construction
Data Collection Method
Research Strategy: Sampling Method
Research Choice: Target Population
Measurement and Scaling of Questions:
26 CHAPTER FOUR
26 ANALYSIS and DISCUSSION
Importance of SCM practices to Project Actualisation
Importance of various objective to Respondent Organisation
How Relevant are these Project Barriers to your Organisation?
46 CHAPTER FIVE
46 CONCLUSION and RECOMMENDATION
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
Construction industry in Iran actually plays a huge role in their economy. The Iranian construction industry has turned out to be a nation that has a growth that is pretty high especially going into 2012. There has been some mention that to be the rapid developing subdivision worldwide in the next decade as said by Johnson Finances and Worldwide construction point-of-view. With Iran putting a lot of intense investment, its influence to Iran’s GDP by some experts believe that it would be much higher. The construction business by many have mentioned that it has encompassed a large cluster of other companies that have been functioning as one in order that they are able to get the ultimate product to make sure that the client is very happy. It can be compared to the industrial subdivision in this regard. Customer gratification is the eventual objective in the manufacture of services and goods. In order for customer probability to be met, developments would need to be attained in construction in an appropriate and cost savings situation. Oladapo (2005) made the description that the construction market as one of the most material concentrated businesses that necessitates close organization among a large amount of particular but symbiotic organizations. The need to safeguard adequate communication between organizations is very essential to properly carry out projects.
1.2 Aim of the Research
The chief aim of the research is to talking about some important subjects of building construction management in Iran. All of the main components s that are in construction have a lot to do with the is management of supply and it is extremely important when it comes down to needing a lot of the suppliers in order to have right delivery of the product. Applying supply chain management in the Iran construction business can eventually guide to cost savings and on time distribution of project which is every customer expectancy.
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.11.6 Delays in construction
Identifying the causes of delays in the construction industry has been a huge subject even in the country of Iran and actually other nations countries. Odeh and Battaineh (2002), Kaming et al. (1997), Alaghbari et al. (2007) Sweis et al. (2008) put a huge highlight on the significance of early documentation of construction delays to evade or decrease negative influences of them on projects. There are a lot of researchers that studied some of the causes of delay in nations Persian Gulf region and in the Middle East and. The outcomes of a study in Iran showed that the main causes of delay in construction projects in this nation has a lot to do with the user site conditions, late deliveries, changes, designers, weather, economic conditions and increase in amount (Al-Momani 2000). Mezher & Tawil (1998) gave the explaination that planning and endorsement of drawings, leisureliness of the owner’s policymaking procedure, obtaining permits in order to get the approval from various government establishments, non-obtainability of materials on time, and inexpert manpower are chief reasons of delay in Iran construction projects.
Figure 1 Graph shows the breakdown of Iran’s construction industry 2012.
A study in 2006 in Iran by Omar and Al-Hejji revealed the highest frequent factors of delay in this nation as: awarding contracts to the lowermost bidder, variations in orders by the owners throughout construction, payments that are in delay, planning and scheduling that was ineffective by the contractors, not to mention poor site management by contractors, scarcity of labor and problems in backing. In the UAE, planning and support of drawings, leisureliness of the owner’s executive process and insufficient early development of the project, lack of manpower, conflict among contractors and the advisers are the main reasons of postponement (Faridi & El-Sayegh 2006). In Egypt, El-Razek et al. (2008) recognized the most significant causes of delay as backing by contractors throughout construction, delays in contractors’ imbursement by owners, project changes by owners or their agents for the duration of construction, and no operation of specialized construction.
Figure 2 This Graph shows places in construction management where issues can start.
It is obvious, that some delay causes are really typical among various nations and some others. The reason behind this is that delay is a factor that has an adjacent association with working culture, shareholders, the government strategy, economy circumstances and also the availability of resources machine, money, and man). These are the various concepts that usually differ from one nation to another. Therefore, it is not so astonishing that some reasons of delay could be more vital or more recurrent in one nation in contrast to the others. Faridi and El-Sayegh (2006)made an interpretation that was quite close when they had compared the various causes of delay in that were in Iran.
Figure 3 This graph shows the different departments that can cause issues with project delays and issues.
2.11.8 Causes of Delay big projects.
Sanders and Eagles (2001) both describe delay as a certain action that causes much more extended time to be able to finish all or some of a certain project. Delay can also be mentioned as the time that is overrun, either way beyond the exact date for the end product which was talked about by the agreement or even way beyond the prolonged agreement time where an postponement of time has been decided. The kind of delay that most and other studies have focused on in their study is the time that has been overrun far beyond the due date for it to be finished which does cause some issues in the construction management.
Having certain delays in construction is a something that does happen all over the world (Sambasivan and Soon, 2007) affecting not just the construction business nevertheless the general budget of nations as well (Faradi and El-Sayegh, (2006). Delay includes a lot of multiple multifaceted matters all of which are habitually of critical position to the parties to the construction agreement. These issues distress right to recover costs of delay or the necessity to lengthen the project with the important entitlement to retrieval prices for alterations to the contract schedules. Questions ascend as to the reasons of delay and the conveying of fault often evolves into arguments and lawsuit (Bolton, 1990).
Nowadays, many shareholders in construction are becoming progressively worried about the duration of construction projects for the reason that of cumulative interest rates, price rises, commercial burdens (Nkado, 1995), and obviously, it’s prospective to outcome in arguments and claims that are leading to negotiation or process.
Figure 3-1 Delay Factors in Order of the Importance in Iran
Most of the delays in construction in Iran construction projects are caused by so many different l factors. Ahmed et al. (2003) grouped delays into two groups — external causes and internal causes. Internal causes ascend from the gatherings to the agreement (e.g. contractor, consultant and client). External causes, conversely, ascend from proceedings outside the mechanism of the parties. These comprise the act of God, government act, and substantial dealers. Bolton (1990) classifies delay as follows:
Understandable but non-compensable delay -these are delays caused by incidences which are not attributable to any of the gatherings.
Compensable delay – these delays consequence from acts or oversights of the proprietor or the person who acts of the person over the project.
Inexcusable delay – these postponements outcome from a contractor’s own fault or his subcontractors or substantial dealers
Table 3-1 the Most Important Delay Factors According to Contractors
Preparation and approval of shop drawings
Delays in contractors progress payment by owner
Design change by owner during construction
Delay in the special manufacture out side of Saudi Arabia
Owners cash problems during construction
Slowness of owner’s decision making process
Slow delivery of construction material
Design errors made by designers
Waiting for sample materials to be approved
Table 3-2 the Most Significant Delay Issues Conferring to Architectural Engineers
Owners cash problem during construction
Financing by contractors during construction
Relationship between different subcontractors schedules
Slowness of owner’s decision making process
Delays in contractors progress payments by owner
Changes in type of construction materials
Poor judgment of involved people in estimating time
Controlling subcontractors by general contractors
Table 3-3 the Most Important Delay Factors According to Owners
Design errors made by designers
Excessive bureaucracy in project owner operation
Shortage of manpower
Financing by contractor during construction
Shortage of construction material
Owner’s cash problems during construction
Errors committed during field construction on site
Unavailability of professional construction management
2.12.9 Construction Delay: Quantitative Analysis
In some studied already done in issue with comstruction management, one of the main objectives of (Al-Momani, 2000) was to figure out the cause and degree of interruptions in public projects in Iran. Some of these studies investigated the causes of these interruptions for about 130 projects, counting office and communication facilities administration buildings residential buildings, schools, medical and centers. The sample population was recognized by choosing 130 ended public projects in diverse areas of Iran among the years of 1990 and 1997. To examine why construction delays and issues occurred, the succeeding statistics were gained from the projects’ records:
ae Planned period of contract ae Actual conclusion statistics
ae Design variations
ae Date of notice to continue ae Delays come across throughout construction ae Conflicts connected to the drawings and stipulations ae Time postponements ae Late delivery of material and equipment
As shown in Table 3.4, the incidences for each limit in five dissimilar construction groups were delivered, and numerous projects were behind for numerous reasons. The study establish that the chief causes of postponement were deprived design, change orders, weather, site circumstances, late distribution, financial conditions, and upsurge in quantities. The main reasons of delay discovered in this study were poor design, change order and site and financial situations.
Table 3-4 Summary of the Inspected Projects Occurrence of Delay in Iran
Increase in Quantity
2.13.10 Construction Delay: Developing Economy
(Ogunlan et al. 1996) displayed a certain survey which was able to look at the issues in construction management that were experienced while in the process of constructing high-rise buildings in Iran. Twelve projects were chosen for examination and meetings were presented with their main engineers. Interviews took place right there on the project sites, and a total 20 persons had been questioned, on behalf of 2.4 individuals per project. Candidates were allowable to effortlessly debate the details for their development’s breaks and categorize the parties that were complicated. The facts of the origins of interruption can be seen in Table .
3.1 Poor ICT groundwork
If a construction site does not have an extensive and high quality ICT groundwork, it’s not likely to exploit ICT power entirely. Some defendants consider that Iran’s ICT infrastructure does not really permit them use their ICT devices with the entire volume. For instance internet speed is not really enough to be able have an online meeting by video conference, on the other hand, they could maybe be ready to have some kind video conference if the internet speed is a whole lot better. Furthermore, in some distant construction locations which are out of city parts, there is not much contact to internet. As a result, some innovator construction businesses in ICT who have enormous developments in distant regions, have to capitalize on ICT groundwork merely for that project and this substance forces an excess cost to them. One of the defendants specified “as a group we are driving on the ICT road. it’s not conceivable to even drive fast on a road that is stony. If we have made the decision decided to go that route this way, the road should be paved.”
3.2 Unacquaintedness of local personnel with ICT in remote construction sites
The staffs who are employed in construction sites are typically in lower level of field associated with office workers and this matter is simple for distant construction sites for the reason that discovering local experts is not continuously conceivable. As a result, the company have to give more to send specialists to distant construction sites. This subject is not cost functioning for small developments for the reason that a small project typically has a small income boundary and it is not defensible to capitalize a lot for sending accomplished personnel to distant construction places for a small profit.
3.3 No financial justification for ICT training of personnel in small construction sites
Accomplished personnel are money for a company. The construction firms are the ones that usually make the attempt to upkeep their ones that are educated and experienced staff. As it was articulated, expert local workers are not typically obtainable to service in remote. construction locations. Teaching the local personnel is an answer merely for huge construction projects, for the reason that the local trained personnel of small developments will be jobless in that district after project conclusion and typically the gotten profit is less than cost of education.
3.4 Lack of sensation transfer in some electronic communication devices
It is clear that individuals really do show their goals with words. The words are marked otherwise in different circumstances. Each articulation comprises a precise feeling and resolution. One of the hindrances of electronic communication devices is that is really does show some sort of lack of feeling transfer. Video session is a communique instrument that is very helpful for those construction firms that are performing remote construction developments. Online meeting can decrease travelling price of personnel among head office and construction place. On the other hand, one of the respondents spoke that their corporation has the wanted ability for video conference, nonetheless the personnel don’t really welcome these ICT devices. He made the point that it has a human motive. He mentioned “When the individuals are together, have more truthful sentiment about having a meeting than when they are in their own house. They have more reaction and action and meddling when they are composed.”
3.5 Inapplicable software outputs
Engineering judgement has been a major issue when it comes to design procedure of every construction development. In the design stage it is really essential that knowledgeable and well-informed engineers strategy or supervise the design procedure. Their knowledge allows them to have an outstanding engineering judgement about applicability of design software productions. One of the software designers trusts that even if he deliberate structuring codes in their software as much as he can, on the other hand if the user had not adequate technical information, he/she cannot use the software properly.
It can be concluded that in the remote construction developments that designers are doing in main office and away from construction location, applicability of software productions will be reduced if the designers did not have sufficient experience and resourcefulness from implementation of the productions and if they want to visit and oversee the construction site, it will cost a lot to exchange among head office and construction location.
3.6 Complicated administrative process for ICT development
As it was articulated, in some circumstances, to progress the poor ICT groundwork, construction firms will really need to do some investment on ICT groundwork single for a specific project. Throughout the interviews, it was exposed that the managerial procedure of getting consent to improve some ICT groundwork like internet is extremely difficult. An applicant stated that “our business may be tangled numerous months to get consents.” The interviewees really do have this assumption that it will cost less for the government to grow ICT infrastructure in distant construction sites for the reason that the expansion cost will be dispersed amongst all construction firms consuming these amenities. Then, each business has to participate distinctly on a precise project.
3.7 Poor reserve system in remote construction places
In the isolated construction developments, the corporation has to make sure that they launch two separate administrations, one in the head office and another in the construction location. Linking and assimilating these two governments is a vital task. For the duration of the investigation stage, it was unwritten that one of the construction supervisors’ worries is basically the backup system. Because of lack of a combined system amongst major office and construction place the backup system will possibly be detached. One of the respondents made the point “we are the ones that do send the strategies to the construction places in arrangement of computer archives. If these various files are obtainable for contractor and supervision system deprived of any restraint, everybody will be able to make change on them consciously or involuntarily and these changed files can be measured as the unique plans”
4.2.3 Recommendations to improve construction management in buildings
To be able to improve construction management in buildings, there is a lot of interventions and different procedures that Iran can take. Iran industries are on their way with experiencing an almost incessant efficiency growth in recent times. The one irregularity has been the construction business, for which general efficiency weakened from 1995 to 2001 (Triplett and Bosworth, 2004). For businesses other than construction, improved efficiency can actually be credited to developments in and augmented practice of information technologies, which are actually increased competition because of globalization, and changes in office practices and organizational constructions (Triplett and Bosworth, 2004).
1. Widespread deployment and use of interoperable technology applications, also called
Building Information Modeling (BIM).
Interoperability is basically described as the ability to be able succeed and communicate electronic information that is among the various clients, owners, and suppliers, and through a development’s design, engineering, processes, project management, building, monetary, and legal units. Interoerability is important in construction because it lead to a possible scope of information technology devices and requests which does include computer-aided intention and recruiting (CADD), three — and four — dimensional visualization which are beneficial in making sure that the construction project is accurate. Also utilized to make sure the construction in the building goes according to plan is having on board successful modeling programs. Also they will need things like the laser scanning, scheduling tools and cost-estimating, materials tracking.
Effective utilization of interoperable machineries entails combined, cooperative procedures and actual preparation up front and therefore can help overcome problems to competence shaped by procedure fragmentation. Interoperable machineries can also benefit to recover the excellence and speed of project associated decision making; assimilate procedures; work flow accomplish supply chains; sequence; improve data correctness and decrease the period that had been spent on data entry; lessen design and engineering battles and the following need for revise; progress the life — cycle organization of buildings and substructure; and deliver the statistics essential to amount performance. Fences to the extensive placement of interoperable technologies comprise legal subjects, data-storage volumes, and the need for “intelligent” search requests to sort rapidly through thousands of statistics rudiments and make real-time material obtainable for on-site decision making.
2. Improved job-site efficiency through more effective interfacing of people, processes, materials, equipment, and information.
The job site that is for a huge construction project is a dynamic place, involving numerous contractors, subcontractors, trades people, and laborers, all of whom require equipment, materials, and supplies to finish up a certain task. Management these doings and demands to get to the supreme competence from the obtainable resources is problematic and characteristically not done well. Money, time and resources are missed when developments are poorly achieved, making the workers to have to wait a long time to be able to get things like tools and work crews’ agendas to battle; whenever the work crews are not all the way on — site at the right time; or when equipment and supplies are stored up haphazardly, making it mandatory that they be moved a lot of times. Better use of automatic gear (e.g., for diggings and earthmoving processes, concrete placement, pipe connection) and information skills (e.g., radio-incidence documentation tags for tracking all of the materials, personal numerical assistants for apprehending field statistics), procedure developments, and the delivery of real — time info for better-quality management at the job site could meaningfully cut the waste, advance job — site security, and advance the excellence of developments. A main fence to more real use of such technologies is the division and sequencing of planning, design, manufacturing, and construction procedures. Improved job — site efficiency also requires a skilled labor force with communication, collaboration, and organization skills as well as technical skills.
3. Greater use of prefabrication, preassembly, modularization, and off-site fabrication techniques and processes.
Modularization, preassembly, Prefabrication, and off — site fabrication include the construction or meeting of systems and components that are at the off-site sites and industrial plants. Once finished, the systems or mechanisms are transported to a structure job site for connection at the suitable time. These methods bid the potential (if used appropriately) of lower scheme prices, shorter agendas, better quality, and more well-organized use of labor and resources. Numerous problems stand in the way of the extensive use of such technologies, which also includes building cryptograms that will actually bring some kind of a hinderance innovation also as conventional design and building procedures and practices.
4. Advanced, widespread use of demonstration installations. Demonstration of the installations are investigation and expansion devices which are able to take an assortment of procedures: doing some type of field testing on the job site; holding various seminars, training, and having some conferences; and technical laboratories with cultured gear and consistent testing and reporting procedures. Better and more cooperative use of demonstration connections which can be utilized to verify and test the efficiency of new procedures, technologies, and materials and their willingness to be organized all over the construction industry in Ira. By allowing determinations to be made about whether innovative approaches are mature enough for general use, demonstration installations can help to mitigate innovation related risks to owners, contractors, and subcontractors.
5. Effective performance measurement to drive efficiency and support innovation.
Performance measures are enablers of innovation and of corrective actions throughout a project’s life cycle. They can help companies and organizations understand how processes or practices led to success or failure, improvements or inefficiencies, and how to use that knowledge to improve products, processes, and the outcomes of active projects. The nature of construction projects and the industry itself calls for lagging, current, and leading performance indicators at the industry, project, and task levels, respectively.
Preassembly, Prefabrication & Modular Construction
Construction workers typically are exposed to high levels of noise, dust and airborne particles, adverse weather conditions, and other factors that can cause fatigue and injuries and thereby reduce efficiency and productivity. New types of equipment can make an activity physically easier to perform, easier to control, more precise, and safer for construction workers. Similarly, changes in materials can reduce the weight of construction components, which in turn can make them easier to handle, move, and install. Manufacturing building components off — site provides for more controlled conditions and allows for improved quality and precision in the fabrication of the component.
Prefabrication, preassembly, modularization, and off-site fabrication involve the assembly or fabrication of building systems and/or components at off — site locations and plants. Once completed, the systems or components are shipped to a construction job site for installation at the appropriate time. One study that examined the relationship between changes in material technology and construction productivity based on 100 construction — related tasks found the following.
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