How Mainstreaming Betters Education of Children

Webster’s New American Handy College Dictionary, a “disability” is: “…the incapacity to do something because of a handicap – physical, mental, etc.” Meanwhile, the Random House Dictionary of the English Language goes further: “1. Lack of competent power, strength, or physical or mental ability; incapacity; 2. A permanent physical flaw, weakness or handicap.” Those dry facts do not come close to describing the genuine compassion and bond a loving parent feels for a child with disabilities. And parents too, likely are not concerned with the operative “political correctness” of not using the word “disabled” – since now, a new set of words has come into play in the professional ranks. Is the child a “challenged” child – physically challenged, emotionally challenged, and mentally challenged? For the purposes of this study, the word “disability” will be emphasized

Parents of children with learning disabilities, who have been in special education programs (there are approximately five million such children with varying disabilities currently in public and private schools in the U.S.), have options, and they very likely know those options well. First, parents have been previously informed of their rights and alternatives, because the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, IDEA, requires school districts to make that law clear to parents. That law, passed in 1975, guarantees that every child with a disability has access to a publicly supported education, be served appropriately, and be treated with the dignity and respect they deserve.

Don't use plagiarized sources. Get Your Custom Essay on
How Mainstreaming Betters Education of Children
Just from $9/Page
Order Essay

Questions to be Asked by Parents and School

Prior to Mainstreaming, and before Launching Study:

Have these students gone through the evaluation phase that IDEA provides for?

Initially an assessment must be made as to the disability itself, of course, and there are continuing assessments which must be made of the student’s progress in the original class prior to any discussions of moving the child into “regular” school classrooms. Prior to moving children, questions need to be raised regarding laws for disabled children beyond IDEA; such as, have provisions of the federal law of 1990, ADA, been addressed? (2.1of ADA: Provisions for Adults and Children. The specifications in these guidelines are based upon adult dimensions and anthropometrics. These guidelines also contain alternate specifications based on children’s dimensions and anthropometrics for drinking fountains, water closets, toilet stalls, lavatories, sinks, and fixed or built-in seating and tables.) Is the new classroom environment – and the rest room facilities and other physical services – within the federal guidelines in terms of providing human needs for each child? (3.5 of ADA: Definitions: Adaptability. The ability of certain building spaces and elements, such as kitchen counters, sinks, and grab bars, to be added or altered so as to accommodate the needs of individuals with or without disabilities or to accommodate the needs of persons with different types or degrees of disability.) And are representatives of any appropriate non-educational public agencies required to be participants in individualized educational program (IEP) meetings? In some states, some related services, such as mental health services, are in the hands of non-educational professionals.

In formal discussions between parents of disabled children and school officials, i.e., IEP planning, parents may – and in most cases should – play a lead role in determining the agenda: goals and objectives of the meeting; related services connected to programs and placement; curricula, methodology. Has the school shown good faith in considering strategies to assist the child in assessing the new conditions and realities of the mainstreaming move?

Has the appropriateness of the new “instructional setting” been fully thought out by both the school and the families of the disabled students? For example, IDEA provides that the school district offer a continuum of placement options to the parents. Is this to be a regular class? Is this to be a special “day class” environment?

Does the family understand that the law requires the child be placed in the “least restrictive” environment? This means that, to the maximum extend possible, the children with disabilities being mainstreamed are to be educated with children who are “non-disabled.” The “least restrictive environment” also means that the child has a right to be as close to home as possible: *Court outcomes when there has been litigation generally provide that the child should be mainstreamed into the school that child would normally attend if the child were not disabled. [*Gets v. Board of Education. 774 F2d 575 (3d Cir. 1985)]

Even though IDEA favors mainstreaming as a general rule – “regular classroom placement” – has the family been appraised of the fact that a child’s individual needs override the school’s desire to mainstream that child? A child, no matter the severity of the disability, is not required to be removed from his or her special education environment.

What if school officials, in the IEP session which will determine the location of the mainstreaming of the child, say they have a particular kind of class chosen, but they want to leave the location of that class up to school administrators? The parents, by law, may object. The school’s IEP team should – with the parents’ participation – not only decide the kind of class, but also the location of the class; otherwise, the child may be forced to be transported by bus many miles from home, causing stress and unnecessary weariness.

Has the parent initiated a detailed “child profile” – to give school administrators a family perspective on the child, beyond the test results and checked boxes on graphs and charts? The child profile can be a useful tool in working with schools; additionally, it indicates to the school how well the family knows the profile of their child, and that the family has taken extra steps to assist in the educational advancement of the child.

Ethical Issues

Once the school and the parents have agreed, at the conclusion of the IEP meeting to discuss the specifics of mainstreaming, the parents do not have to sign the IEP document on the spot. There must be no pressure. The parents should be told they could take the document home to carefully study, away from any potential pressure of a formal session with authorities, and return it in 24 hours.

On the IEP form, there is a box to check to indicate the parent was provided with information regarding their legal rights under IDEA. Prior to mainstreaming, the family needs to be informed of what will transpire if the move to a regular classroom does not work out. What if a bully in the art class makes fun of the child’s disability? Who handles that, if the teacher cannot always control the bully? What if the child is an African-American and the class he is moved into is largely Caucasian, with “redneck” roughnecks in the back of the room making racially inappropriate remarks? What if the child is Middle Eastern, with a name such as “Mohammed,” and rude boys in the new class re-name him “bin Laden” or another derogatory title?

All potential trouble spots relating to race, religion, gender, degree of disability, need to be thoroughly discussed prior to placement.

Definition of Subject / Participants:

WHO? The 10 participants in the proposed study will be ADD / ADHD students from middle class families – of diverse ethnicity – from upstate New York.

WHAT CLASSES WILL THEY ATTEND? Art, Reading, Music.

QUESTION: What is ADD / ADHD? ANSWER: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder is a neurological problem. Three-to-five percent of U.S. children suffer from some degree of ADHD; in the average classroom, up to 2 children may suffer some degree of the disorder. It comes in various forms. Today they all fall under the category of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), and then the main category is subdivided into ADHD Inattentive Type, or ADHD Impulsive-Hyperactive Type, or ADHD Combined Type. In the recent past the terms attention deficit disorder “with” or “without” hyperactivity were also commonly used. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder comes in various forms, and no two ADD or ADHD kids are exactly alike.

QUESTION: Are the children sometimes resistant to a teacher’s authority? ANSWER: Yes, a child may be willfully defiant with ADHD, and teachers in classes where children with these disabilities are to be mainstreamed should have proper training.

QUESTION: What are some of the expected behaviors that would deviate from the “norm” of a classroom? ANSWER: Defiance, rebelliousness, and selfishness are “moral” issues, not neurological issues. But ADHD children from families with strong values and morals do not generally exhibit “immoral,” “selfish,” or “destructive” behaviors. QUESTION: typically, what can a teacher expect from a ADHD child? ANSWER: First, problems with Attention. Second, problems with a lack of Impulse Control. Third, problems with Over-activity or motor restlessness. Fourth, the child is easily bored.

Hypothesis: Previous studies have not always resulted in consistent results on the success or lack of success while mainstreaming. However, in 50 studies comparing the academic performance of mainstreamed and segregated students with mild handicapping conditions, the mean academic performance of the integrated group was in the 80th percentile, while the segregated students score was in the 50th percentile (Weiner, R. 1985, Carlberg, C. And Kavale, K. 1980; Baker, E.T., and Wang, M.C., and Walberg, H.J., 1994-95). Therefore, it is the hope that this study will show marked improvement in scholastic achievement by ADHD students who are chosen to participate.

Definition of Procedure:

Sampling Method – choosing participants: Special Education classes in cooperative schools (with parents’ permission) will make data available on ADHD students who have shown the ability to adapt and be reasonably successful at following directions and have clearly obvious motivation to create a better life for themselves.

Outside therapists and ADHD professionals will review sampling methods proposed for use in selecting special education students for mainstreaming; parents of students being considered for the study will be in full compliance and agreement with the methods of sampling – whether or not their child is later chosen.

Parents will be promised access to all pertinent research data on their children following the study – as they are legally entitled to under IDEA.

Data Collection Procedures:

Software to be used: LexisNexis â„¢ Research Software, Version 7.2.1.5 (7/25/2001);

User-friendly questionnaires will be provided to teachers and parents to keep a daily, weekly, and monthly record of progress.

In order to assure quality control measures are adhered to in preparing the questionnaires, and that assurances of reliability and validity are met and kept throughout the study, a research consultant with the Lindamood-Bell learning group will be approached and asked to donate time (in-kind). In turn for their time and talent, Lindamood-Bell’s name will be mentioned in the final outcome of the study, and in any newspaper or other media reports at the conclusion of the study – providing those reports respect the privacy / confidentiality of parents and students. (Disclaimers must be signed by parents in order to authorize any use thereof, outside of the original intent of the study.)

Appropriate statistical methods and graphical formats: Before proposing statistical methods and graphical formats for the measurement of students’ success (or lack of success) in mainstreamed environments, the research team for this study must consult with professionals like Lindamood-Bell to receive fundamental direction and support. A review of previously done studies will also be necessary. Those studies are not available at this time.

Below, please find sample teacher form for daily & weekly progress updates; to be shared with parents; additional data to be gather by study: success by gender; success measured by involvement of parents.

A basic teacher form for daily and weekly updates on student progress]

Dates of results ____to

Weekly results for Student

Teacher’s Name

Points Awarded / Is Student Progressing Appropriately/Comments

READING

Monday

Tuesday

Wednesday

Thursday

Friday

ART

Monday

Tuesday

Wednesday

Thursday

Friday

MUSIC

Monday

Tuesday

Wednesday

Thursday

Friday

OVERALL POINTS TO BE ENTERED INTO DATABASE: Note: On a scale of 1-10, the teacher will award points for each day’s class work by the student in the study group. For example, if the student scored 8 points in ART on each of three days, and 7 points the other two days of the week, that student would have achieved 38 out of a possible 50 points for that week. Students will also be “graded” using the existing class grading system, AND, the teacher will be asked to provide subjective analysis as a journal of progress. The criteria for that journal of progress will be worked out between the study group, teachers, and parents.

Bibliography

ADD In School (2003). “What is ADD? ADD in School Presents Hundreds of Classroom Interventions http://www.addinschool.com/.

Haller, Mary Cathryn (1999). Learning Disabilities 101: A Primer for Parents. Florida: Rainbow Books.

Lindamood-Bell (2002). “The Lindamood-Bell Approach to Learning is Global, Balanced, and Interactive http://www.lblp.com/,

Rosner, Jerome (1993). Helping Children Overcome Learning Difficulties. New York: Walker and Company.

Seigel, Lawrence M. (1999). The Complete IEP Guide: How to Advocate for Your Special Ed Child. Berkeley: Nolo Press.

The ADD Newsletter (2002). “Attention Deficit Disorder Links Project: What is ADHD and ADD? http://www.attentiondeficitdisorder.ws/links/addadhdfavorites.html.

Unger, Harlow G. (1998). The Learning Disabilities Trap: How to Save Your Child from the Perils of Special Education. Chicago: Contemporary Books.


Get Professional Assignment Help Cheaply

Buy Custom Essay

Are you busy and do not have time to handle your assignment? Are you scared that your paper will not make the grade? Do you have responsibilities that may hinder you from turning in your assignment on time? Are you tired and can barely handle your assignment? Are your grades inconsistent?

Whichever your reason is, it is valid! You can get professional academic help from our service at affordable rates. We have a team of professional academic writers who can handle all your assignments.

Why Choose Our Academic Writing Service?

  • Plagiarism free papers
  • Timely delivery
  • Any deadline
  • Skilled, Experienced Native English Writers
  • Subject-relevant academic writer
  • Adherence to paper instructions
  • Ability to tackle bulk assignments
  • Reasonable prices
  • 24/7 Customer Support
  • Get superb grades consistently
 

Online Academic Help With Different Subjects

Literature

Students barely have time to read. We got you! Have your literature essay or book review written without having the hassle of reading the book. You can get your literature paper custom-written for you by our literature specialists.

Finance

Do you struggle with finance? No need to torture yourself if finance is not your cup of tea. You can order your finance paper from our academic writing service and get 100% original work from competent finance experts.

Computer science

Computer science is a tough subject. Fortunately, our computer science experts are up to the match. No need to stress and have sleepless nights. Our academic writers will tackle all your computer science assignments and deliver them on time. Let us handle all your python, java, ruby, JavaScript, php , C+ assignments!

Psychology

While psychology may be an interesting subject, you may lack sufficient time to handle your assignments. Don’t despair; by using our academic writing service, you can be assured of perfect grades. Moreover, your grades will be consistent.

Engineering

Engineering is quite a demanding subject. Students face a lot of pressure and barely have enough time to do what they love to do. Our academic writing service got you covered! Our engineering specialists follow the paper instructions and ensure timely delivery of the paper.

Nursing

In the nursing course, you may have difficulties with literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, critical essays, and other assignments. Our nursing assignment writers will offer you professional nursing paper help at low prices.

Sociology

Truth be told, sociology papers can be quite exhausting. Our academic writing service relieves you of fatigue, pressure, and stress. You can relax and have peace of mind as our academic writers handle your sociology assignment.

Business

We take pride in having some of the best business writers in the industry. Our business writers have a lot of experience in the field. They are reliable, and you can be assured of a high-grade paper. They are able to handle business papers of any subject, length, deadline, and difficulty!

Statistics

We boast of having some of the most experienced statistics experts in the industry. Our statistics experts have diverse skills, expertise, and knowledge to handle any kind of assignment. They have access to all kinds of software to get your assignment done.

Law

Writing a law essay may prove to be an insurmountable obstacle, especially when you need to know the peculiarities of the legislative framework. Take advantage of our top-notch law specialists and get superb grades and 100% satisfaction.

What discipline/subjects do you deal in?

We have highlighted some of the most popular subjects we handle above. Those are just a tip of the iceberg. We deal in all academic disciplines since our writers are as diverse. They have been drawn from across all disciplines, and orders are assigned to those writers believed to be the best in the field. In a nutshell, there is no task we cannot handle; all you need to do is place your order with us. As long as your instructions are clear, just trust we shall deliver irrespective of the discipline.

Are your writers competent enough to handle my paper?

Our essay writers are graduates with bachelor's, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college degree. All our academic writers have a minimum of two years of academic writing. We have a stringent recruitment process to ensure that we get only the most competent essay writers in the industry. We also ensure that the writers are handsomely compensated for their value. The majority of our writers are native English speakers. As such, the fluency of language and grammar is impeccable.

What if I don’t like the paper?

There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.

Reasons being:

  • When assigning your order, we match the paper’s discipline with the writer’s field/specialization. Since all our writers are graduates, we match the paper’s subject with the field the writer studied. For instance, if it’s a nursing paper, only a nursing graduate and writer will handle it. Furthermore, all our writers have academic writing experience and top-notch research skills.
  • We have a quality assurance that reviews the paper before it gets to you. As such, we ensure that you get a paper that meets the required standard and will most definitely make the grade.

In the event that you don’t like your paper:

  • The writer will revise the paper up to your pleasing. You have unlimited revisions. You simply need to highlight what specifically you don’t like about the paper, and the writer will make the amendments. The paper will be revised until you are satisfied. Revisions are free of charge
  • We will have a different writer write the paper from scratch.
  • Last resort, if the above does not work, we will refund your money.

Will the professor find out I didn’t write the paper myself?

Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.

What if the paper is plagiarized?

We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.

When will I get my paper?

You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.

Will anyone find out that I used your services?

We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.

How our Assignment  Help Service Works

1.      Place an order

You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.

2.      Pay for the order

Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.

3.      Track the progress

You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.

4.      Download the paper

The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.

smile and order essaysmile and order essay PLACE THIS ORDER OR A SIMILAR ORDER WITH US TODAY AND GET A PERFECT SCORE!!!

order custom essay paper