Homeland Security Intelligence in the U.S

Homeland Security Intelligence in the U.S

The functions associated with the activities of the U.S Government are believed to be a Cold War product.  That so popular about the intelligence community was launched and developed during the period of the cold war. Although it has had a number of incarnations over time, historically, intelligence has been playing a very pivotal role in the provision of support to the United States military forces. It has, therefore, proved to be highly effective when it comes to shaping the policies of the country.With that connection; therefore, this research paper will get into the root of the Homeland Security Intelligence in the U.S and all other intelligence bodies that have worked together to counter terrorist threats and attacks.

Unlike other countries, then the United States lacked a more dedicated organization that focuses on the collection of domestic intelligence. Despite Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) being one of the primary domestic intelligence agency, the Department of Defense (DoD) and the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) are also believed to be playing very limited roles when it comes to domestic intelligence. In their quest to respond to the criticism after the 9/11 attack, the FBI was compelled into making major reforms in order to increase their analysis and gathering of domestic intelligence data following the rise of terrorism. Therefore, since the creation of Domestic Intelligence in the year 1908, the FBI stood responsible for law enforcement and domestic intelligence. Since the 1930s to 1960s, the FBI directed much of their energy on espionage cases and foreign subversion.

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The intelligence guide

The intelligence guide for the first responders is held with the responsibility of helping the state, tribal law enforcement, local, homeland security and the right private sector personnel to understand and access the federal counter terrorism, intelligence reporting, homeland security and the weapons of mass destruction. Much of the data found from this guide, compiled, derived and embraced from the already existing Intelligence Community (IC).According toTromblay, it was designed to make it easy in sharing of the information, especially among the state, tribal, local, territorial jurisdictions and the entire federal government (Tromblay, 2015.Therefore, their main role is to respond to the responsibilities and roles, especially to the consumers of intelligence information. They must also demonstrate to the first responders where they can easily secure information and access to the internet through United States Government systems. Additionally, they need to ensure the provision of Intelligence Community overview, the intelligence cycle and those products meant for the first responders.

Since 9/11 attacks by a terrorist, Congress directed more attention, on ways in which intelligence was collected, disseminated and analyzed in an effort to offer protection to the Homeland against terrorism.  Therefore, homeland security intelligence can be widely defined without necessarily offering regards to the geographical source of the collected intelligence (Janbek, & Williams, 2014).  Additionally, the approaches used towards framing the Homeland Security Intelligence include structural, geographic and the holistic approach.  Beyond geographic limits, there is also another set of factors that helps in differentiating among the approaches and the extent to which an individual believes that the Homeland Security Intelligence forms the main scope of the Federal Government, local, local and tribal which appears to be highly inclusive.  On the perceptions of Homeland security intelligence, leaders of this body frequently speak concerning the accomplishments, priorities, responsibilities and the associated challenges which are mainly faced by their agencies (Janbek, & Williams, 2014). From a normal point of view, there exists a more unified discipline of intelligence. According to Negroponte an ambassador’, there exists three dimensions of the intelligence which includes, military, foreign and domestic. From this perspective, Homeland Security Intelligence can be regarded as a dimension of the intelligence that appears unique in some ways and at the same time overlapping, the mentioned dimensions.

According toTromblay, FBI categorizes investigations on terrorism into two programs. They include domestic terrorism and international terrorism.International terrorism is composed of the cases where subjects make up the members of the designated foreign terrorist organizations (FTOs), HVEs and the state sponsor of the terrorism (Tromblay, 2015).On the other hand, domestic terrorism includes individuals residing inside the United States inspired by the global Jihad. These refer to a radicalized criminal group in the United States which does not get any individualized direction through the FTOS.  Therefore, in reference to Tromblay, Domestic terrorists refer to those individuals that commit violent criminal acts to push their ideological goals that root from domestic effects, for example, the anti-government sentiments and racial bias.

four categories of threat emanating from domestic terrorism

The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) groups threat emanating from domestic terrorism were are subdivided into four categories.  They include the extreme violent racially motivated, anti-authority extremism, abortion extremism and environment/rights extremism. In my view, these violent domestic extremists are motivated by the government perceptions or the law enforcements reactions on the actions of the legislative, and the socio-political situations. Therefore, in their mission to offer protection to the people and the constitution of the United States, not a single FBI investigation should be solely opened by only considering the First Amendment-protected activity. It is not the responsibility of FBI to launch investigation only the association of movements and groups. The research reveals that to be able to predict investigations on domestic terrorism of any person, the FBI should gather sufficient information about an individual perpetrating violent and criminal action to push for their ideology.  It is due to these responsibilities that have compelled FBI to strive towards sharing information efficiently and at the same time utilizing all the lawful investigative skills and methods in order to counter-terrorism attacks.

The paper reveals that as a result of the launch of Fusion Center Guidelines, the Federal Government had to devise best strategies on how to facilitate the operations of the fusion centres.   This was demonstrated during the year 2007 when the White House’s ‘National Strategy for sharing of the information stated that the Federal Government was going to offer their support towards the establishment of these particular centres and throw their weight in sustaining them. This led to the formation of the committee, and according to the result of their survey, fusion centres have discovered strategy documents and guidelines which can be utilized towards building and sustaining different operations. 69% of the findings discovered that Fusion Center Guidelines was so effective while 72% discovered that the standard capabilities for the state and Major Urban Area Fusion centres were very useful.Therefore, according toFair this strategy is going to address current challenges involved in sharing of the information and be able to reflect on the national security threat constantly evolving (Fair, 2014).

The research has revealed that HosamSmadi is an example of a successful case of JTTF.In the year 2009, the Jordanian national sparked what was believed to be a huge vehicle-borne improvised explosive device at the underground of Fountain Place Skycrapper in Dallas, Texas.  It is an attack that took Smadi several months of planning and modificationin order to tell of the target he would mainly focus on and perfect explosive device that could execute the plan. In the actual execution, he drove to a nearby parking garage whereby he utilized a mobile phone in dialling the number believed to help towards detonating the bomb hence destroying the building and killing thousands of innocent people. Luckily, the call was not successful in activating the VBIED; instead, it sent a signal to the North Joint Terrorism Task Force who arrested Smadi (Fair, 2014).During the year 2009, the FBI Chicago revealed Smadi via online group extremist where FBI was maintaining an undercover presence. Later, the FBI launched a terrorist investigation to help assess whether he was of any tangible threat to National security. It was through communications that Smadi made a revelation to serve as a soldier for al Qaeda and Osama Bin Ladin, to execute jihadism in the U.S.After around three months followed by successful 25 online covert’ conversations with Smadi; the JTTF realized that the UCO would successfully change into an in-person context which would give a room for an accurate assessment.

The Staff of the House Homeland Security Committee carried out a review on the intelligence sharing related to terrorism via DHS IE, and it was discovered that DHS had made major strides towards the improvement of the terrorism information flow to every stakeholder since its inception(Liepman& Willis, 2014).That the DHS IE was a developing structure and the Chief Intelligence Officer was never authorized through IE. It was also realized that the DHS IE was using a wide range of Information Technology (IT) systems that needed modernization and standardization.  Therefore, implementation of the DHS Data Framework initiative was an essential project that would greatly help to improve the issue, at the same time giving room for perfect intelligence analysis of the Departmental Data.

In the year 2008, the Intelligence and National Security Alliance (INSA) succeeded in establishing a Homeland Security Council (HSIC) in order to help in the promotion of understanding of the responsibility of the intelligence in Homeland enterprises, achievements and counter developing challenges which were still threatening the country. According to Jenkins Liepman, in the year 2011, INSA published a white paper titled, Intelligence to Protect the Homeland, aimed at examining the progress of the enterprise and the challenges experienced ten years down the line after the happenings of 9/11(Liepman, & Willis, 2014). The imminent election of another president and 15th anniversary of the historical 9/11 incident was a perfect and a timely opportunity to help in reflection of evolving years of practice. It was also meant to revisit the paper and its recommendations and the actual state of the enterprise. It also reflects on the major progress made on areas such as information sharing in between non-federal and federal partners subjected into test by the growing threats especially the homegrown violent extremism motivated by ISIS/ISIL and other parts of the extremist organizations.  The paper provided by INSA was a perfect statement of progress that has been made and the anticipated challenges in order to facilitate intelligence integration in the entire Enterprise.

The increased rate of both domestic and international terror threats in the Homeland highlights the essentiality of the country’s security understood as the community.  Although Homeland intelligence has a diverse and extensive collection of assets across the Department of Homeland Security (DHS), it still stands as a tiny player when it comes to prioritization and planning of the Intelligence Community (IC) (Taylor, &Liederbach, 2014).  The research reveals that Homeland intelligence enterprise data is important for the prevention and detection of terror threats to Homeland. According to the law, the community is one, and their relationship noted denotes strengthening shared understanding of the mission, capabilities and assets that are highly essential in stopping homeland terror attacks (Gaines, &Kappeler, 2019).

To conclude, the United States boasts of security and intelligence bodies and organization. Therefore, this research paper wades into the details of both attempted and successful terrorist attacks that have so far claimed the lives of innocent civilians and destruction of properties in the United States.This compelled them to strength enintelligent bodies such as the FBI, CIA, JTTF, and Homeland Intelligence. These are great progress that has seen American security attain greater heights.


Gaines, L. K., &Kappeler, V. E. (2019). Homeland Security and Terrorism. Pearson.

Tromblay, D. E. (2015). The US Domestic Intelligence Enterprise: History, Development, and Operations. CRC Press.

Fair, C. C. (2014). 7U. S.–Pakistan relations: ten years after 9/11. The United States Strategic Change (pp. 231-244). Routledge.

Janbek, D., & Williams, V. (2014).The role of the Internet post-9/11 in terrorism and counterterrorism. The Brown Journal of World Affairs20(2), 297-308.

Tromblay, D. E. (2015). The US Domestic Intelligence Enterprise: History, Development, and Operations. CRC Press.

Bruneau, T. C., &Dombroski, K. R. (2014).Reforming Intelligence: The challenge of control in new democracies.

Taylor, R. W., Fritsch, E. J., &Liederbach, J. (2014). Digital crime and digital terrorism.Prentice-Hall Press.

Jenkins, B. M., Liepman, A., & Willis, H. H. (2014). Identifying enemies among us: Evolving terrorist threats and the continuing challenges of domestic intelligence collection and information sharing.RAND NATIONAL DEFENSE RESEARCH INST SANTA MONICA CA.

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