Cardiovascular conditions leading to Heart failure


Pathophysiology refers to the study of the changes in the physical and biochemical functions of an individual’s body caused a disease, whereas clinical manifestation that can be perceived by the patient or the physician. Such clinical manifestation includes symptoms and signs. Therefore, for the physician to provide appropriate medical intervention, it is essential to examine the health history of the patient. Examining the information regarding patient medical and health history is critical for effective clinical decision making to promote patient satisfaction. It provides knowledge about the patient and helps establish a therapeutic relationship between the nurse and the patient. The study herein seeks to evaluate the importance of health history and appropriate medical intervention regarding the case study of Mrs. J, who is aging.

Clinical manifestation of Mrs.J

Clinical manifestation is regarded as objective when observed by a nurse or a physician and subjective when perceived by the patient. Objective clinical manifestation results from observation through seeing, smelling, and touching. It also includes the behaviors of patients and information that is obtained from medical examination tests. In short, objective manifestation refers to signs, and actual manifestation refers to symptoms. In the case study, Mrs. J exhibits both objective and subjective clinical manifestations. The objective clinical event includes fever, productive cough, nausea, and malaise. She is also diagnosed with acute decompensated heart failure and acute exacerbation of COPD. On the other hand, the subjective manifestation for Mrs. J includes: being anxious and asking whether she is going to die, says that he feels the heart is running away, reports that she is exhausted, and she cannot eat by herself.

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Evaluation of nursing intervention at Admission

Nurses provided an appropriate medical at the time when Mr. J is admitted. The following medication was administered to Mrs. James to control her symptoms: IV furosemide (Lasix), Enalapril (Vasotec), Metoprolol

(Lopressor), IV Morphine sulphate, inhaled short-acting bronchodilator, an inhaled corticosteroid, oxygen delivered at 2l/NC. IV furoside (Lasix) is used to promote dieresis while preventing reabsorption of sodium chloride. Enalapril (Vasotec) treats high blood pressure by converting ACE inhibitors that reduce the heart blood pressure that the heart should maintain. Metoprolol (Lopressor) treats high blood pressure. It relaxes the blood vessels and slows heart rate, which results in improved blood flow. Morphine is an opioid that relieves pain and reduces preload in heart failure. Inhaled short-acting Bronchodilator (Pro Air HFA) relieves bronchoconstriction and mitigates respiratory attacks when opening airways. Inhaled corticosteroids reduce airway inflammation. Finally, oxygen delivery at 2L/NC is the medical intervention that increases the percentage of oxygen that the patient breathes.

Four Cardiovascular conditions that may lead to Heart failure

The four common conditions that lead to heart failure include coronary artery disease, high blood pressure, myocardial infarction, and abnormal heart valves. Coronary artery disease is associated with the narrowing of the arteries, which results in the accumulation of cholesterol. This condition can be controlled through regular exercise and healthy dieting. High blood pressure is a continuous or steady elevation of blood vessels. It is also associated with the accumulation of cholesterol in the arteries. Managing high blood pressure requires regular physical exercises and proper diet. Myocardial infarction results when prolonged ischemia permanently damages the heart muscles, which affects the capacity of the heart to pump blood. Oxygen supplements and decreasing heart workload are the controls mechanism that can be prioritized to mitigate this condition. Abnormal heart valves can result from infection or disease. It also affects the capacity of the heart to pump blood. Valves repair is necessary to control abnormal heart valves.

Nursing interventions for older people to prevent problems caused by multiple drug interactions

Administering various drugs to older patients can have far-reaching effects that could lead to co-existing health problems to worsen. Nurses can avoid such issues by (1) providing accurate information regarding all list of medications. Generic and brand names, dosing frequency, and purpose for taking the drugs should be well documented. (2) Providing proper instruction to patients by teaching on the importance of using one pharmacy to obtain medicines and the potential effects and interaction of each medication. (3)

Health promotion and restoration teaching plan

The nurses should plan and actively participate in health education. For instance, in the case of Mrs. J, there is a need for nurses to provide health education that would help her adopt a healthy lifestyle. Healthy standards involve taking a healthy diet and having regular exercise. Mrs. J should be educated on the effects of cigarette smoking. Also, she should be informed about contemporary therapies for enhancing health. Rehabilitation could also be offered to Mrs. J to help her adapt to a changed lifestyle while providing a therapeutic environment for her. The rehabilitation would also help her get out drug and smoking influence.

Method for providing education to prevent hospital readmission

Nurses should manage medications for Mrs. J and educate her on the proper scheduling of drugs. Also, Mrs. J should be trained to avoid some common illnesses that lead to readmission after previous hospital admission and treatment. By so doing, it will help lower healthcare costs, improve quality, and increase patient safety and satisfaction.

COPD triggers and options for smoking Cessation

Smoking cessation is the only the most reliable treatment that can slow down the progression of Mrs. J’s chronic obstructive pulmonary disease COPD. Generally, informing smokers that they have COPD could increase the rate of smoking cessation. Pharmacotherapies are one of the superior methods for promoting abstinence from smoking. Bupropion and varenicline are the pharmacotherapies that are cost-effective. Intensive counseling could also help Mrs.J quit smoking.











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