Theoretical models in Health Promotion Campaigns

Health Promotion Campaigns

Health Promotion Campaigns the process of empowering people in a community to understand the importance of healthy behaviours. Healthy behaviours improve health, elevate our moods and reduce chances of developing chronic diseases. One example of healthy behaviour is staying away from drug abuse (Edelman, Mandle, Kudzam, 2017).

Theoretical models than underpin health promotion and health education activities

They are a number of theoretical models that provide support in the health promotion activities aimed at preventing diseases. The ecological model theory identifies several factors that have impacts on health habits. They include the community, interpersonal, intrapersonal,public policy and institutionalfactors. Anexample of the ecological models is the Project Health Education Awareness Research Team that addresses the risk of cardiovascular disease that can be caused by drug addiction (Sharma, 2016).

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Another theoretical model is the health belief model which is utilized in providing a guide on the prevention of the disease and in the health promotion. It explains and predicts on any behavioural change. The model gives a description of the factors that have an impact on individual health behaviour. An example is the Michigan Model for Health that focuses on emotional health difficulties such as drug use.

The third model is the stages of change, also known as the trans-theoretical model. This model discusses the readiness of an individual to transform his/her behaviour. It gives a description of the process in stages (Sharma, 2016). The initial stage being Pre-contemplation where there is no plan of taking action, the contemplation stage with the intention and plan of taking action and the preparation stage where some steps and intention of taking action have been made. The action stage follows with behaviour having been changed over a short duration.The behaviour having already been changed is maintained in the maintenance stage before the termination stage, where the desire of going back to the negative habits is no longer in mind.

Dilemmas to conducting health promotion campaign

Health promotion campaigns, mainly on substance abuse, can be faced by a lot of problems on an individual or social level. The first dilemma is the one concerning strategies. The use of persuasive strategy should not infringe on one’s rights. Moreover, coercive strategy leads to coercion dilemma, which looks at the extent one is allowed to employ restrictive regulations on one’s behaviour so as to achieve the health goals. The targeting strategy should aim at balancing the population’s needs. Balancing these needs can be a challenge.

Secondly is the dilemma of inadvertent harm. Labelling dilemma limits the campaign from stigmatizing some individuals having a medical condition risky to their health. Moreover, depriving dilemma comes in when one should not be deprived of pleasures during the promotion. In addition,the culpability dilemma gives the extent to which a person is culpable for the ill-health results monitored from their behaviour.

Another dilemma is the one concerning power and control. The involvement of a community in supporting values of empowerment should not exploit them on their rights (Sharma, 2016). The dilemma associated with this is the exploitation dilemma.Finally is the dilemma concerning social values.This includes the distraction dilemma which focuses on health agenda not distracting the problem of equity. Another dilemma concerning social values is the promise dilemma. The health campaign shouldn’t make promises that will not benefit society when asking people to adopt certain behaviours that will improve their health.

Theories of Moral philosophy to the provision of healthcare

Moral theories help in justifying and reflecting on the ethical principles made. Utilitarianism is one theory in which the end goal is justified even if themeans used are not moral. Deontology concept requires both the end goal and the means to be ethical and moral. Justice is another ethical principle that must be adhered to in the provision of healthcare (Edelman, Mandle, Kudzam, 2017). Fairness should be there when distributing care. Doing good for a patient is a beneficence principle. In addition, there’s the principle of nonmaleficence which involves doing no harm, accountability which is being responsible for one’s actions, fidelity which is the keeping of the promises and autonomy which involves accepting an individual and listening to their opinions.

Aims of the campaign

The aim of the health promotion campaign is to create awareness on the importance of healthy behaviours and to challenge an individual or a group on asking for the health services (Edelman, Mandle, Kudzam, 2017). This way, the health is improved, and thus chronic diseases are prevented. Drug addiction usually has harmful effects on those using them. These harmful effects include cardiovascular problems, gastrointestinal issues, brain damage and respiratory problems. This harmful effects can lead to death. The aim of the campaign is to reduce this number of deaths.

Benefits of a successful health promotion campaign

Health promotion campaigns help in improving the health of a community, an individual or even the nation. Health promotion programs equip one with knowledge on how to take control of his/her behaviour. It reduces the number of premature deaths as an individual is able to stay healthy through the health education provided. Poor living conditions in a community can be caused by insecurity posed by drug addicts. Drug addicts can rob people of their wealth in order to get the funds to purchase the drugs. With appropriate health promotion, quality of life for a community can be achieved (Edelman, Mandle, Kudzam, 2017).By aiming at prevention rather than cure, the costs that could have been spending on medical treatment is reduced. Drugs, for instance, can be so expensive. Health promotion helps an individual save on the funds that could have been used to purchase these drugs.

Methods used in the campaign

The first method used in health promotion is the use of media. Media include the televisions broadcasts, posters, leaflets and the internet. The media creates awareness on the health risks and health benefits, thus impacting a positive change on the drug addicts. Another method is through mobilizing and engaging communities (Edelman, Mandle, Kudzam, 2017). This method focuses on changing society rather than the behaviour of an individual. Furthermore, it aims to effect changes on the social, physical and economic environment, making it conducive for healthy habits.

The third method is advocacyfor policymaking and implementation. The appropriate advocacy methods that will influence the decision-makers in a community are identified.Health education is anothermethod used to promote health. Health education usually aims to bring positive health protection to an individual or agroup. An example of positive health education is life skills with the youths.

Moreover, the communication method enhances the oral presentation, technical writing and team-building skills that are effective for health promotion.Counselling promotes behaviour change on the individual. This way, an individual would be able to take control of his behaviour and thus an improvement in the health.

The success of the campaign

For a successful campaign, develop an approach to effectiveness and evaluation that put into consideration not only the quantitative methods but also the qualitative methodologies. Health promotion should not only focus on the outcomes and interventions but must also include public health policy, community involvement and health services access. An appropriate intervention activity should be selected. This is made possible by taking into consideration the communication, behaviour modification and social activities.The aims and benefits of a campaign should be made clear to an individual and a supportive environment for behaviour change provided. Furthermore, the human rights of an individual must be respected for a successful campaign


Edelman, C. L., Mandle, C. L., &Kudzma, E. C. (2017). Health promotion throughout life span-e-book. Elsevier Health Sciences.

Sharma, M. (2016). Theoretical foundations of health education and health promotion. Jones & Bartlett Publishers.

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