Hand washing is considered a hygienic practice that is crucial in the prevention and spread of disease-causing germs. This aspect of cleanliness is a sensitive issue when it comes to the hospital settings. Patients are the most vulnerable individuals to infections. Infections in the healthcare settings contribute to increased care costs, morbidity, and mortality. The CDC and the WHO both emphasize the importance of observing handwashing practices in hospital settings. This critique analyzes two studies that answer the PICOT question.
Chavaliet al. (2014) examine the effectiveness of hand washing hygiene program in a tertiary care hospital. The study acknowledges the adverse effects of not observing proper hand washing practices, which may lead to healthcare-associated infections, especially among patients in the ICU. The study contributes to the nursing field by advocating for verbal reminders and continuous training to adhere to hand hygiene. The purpose of the article is to evaluate compliance of the nursing and clinical professionals in the ICUs to hand hygiene practices. It also aims to assess the adherence to hand hygiene among healthcare workers after their training. This study’s research question was, “Do the physicians in ICU and other nurses comply with the hand hygiene guidelines?” On the other hand, the second study in this critique is by Ashraf et al. (2010) also addresses the PICOT question by examining the progress of hand hygiene practices in the long-term care facilities. The study’s findings can assist in offering guidance for related programs in long-term care facilities. The study’s purpose involved expediting of timely creation of programs that foster hand hygiene practices in the long-term care settings. It also aims to provide more information about hand hygiene practices specific to the LTCFs. The research question was, “What are the inconsistencies in knowledge concerning attitudes to hand washing among nurses and other practitioners? What are the existing hurdles to compliance with handwashing guidelines?”
Relevance to PICOT
The two articles are crucial in answering the PICOT question.More information will be provided that are relevant to the PICOT question. For instance, Ashraf et al. (2010) specifically cover information about hand hygiene practices in the LTCFs. It studies the obstacles to compliance as well as the knowledge differences about hand hygiene practices among healthcare workers in LTFCs. This information is crucial in providing the answer to the PICOT that mentioned the impact of complying with the hand washing procedures on patients in the long-term care facilities. Likewise, the second article offers insights on hand hygiene practices in acute care facilities. The article’s setting is in the Intensive Care Unit of a healthcare facility.
The PICOT question identified the comparison group as health practitioners in both the LTCFs and acute care facilities. From Chavali et al. (2014), the comparison group comprised nursing staff and allied staff who got observed in the acute care facility. Broadly, they comprised nurses and healthcare workers like physiotherapists and technicians. The other article also comprised a different set of a comparison group that was also related to the PICOT question. Its comparison group comprised healthcare professionals in the LTCFs. They included nurses, certified nursing assistants, social workers, nutritionists, among other healthcare professionals. Ashraf et al. (2010) asserted that quality improvement programs should be created to target other healthcare workers apart from the nurses. Additionally, the findings recommended that this group should get encouraged to take part in training and education programsabout the topic. Barriers to practicing hand hygiene in the LTCFsidentified in the article would help in reducing hospital-acquired infections just as the PICOT questions asked. Chavali et al. (2014) also answered the question by identifying reasons for nonadherence to hand hygiene that could help in training and improving compliance with hand hygiene to reduce infections among patients.
Method of Study
Chavali et al. (2014) adopted two methods: one was prior to the study, while the other one was during the study. The two methods include the use of surveys and observations. The survey involved filling a close-ended questionnaire. Direct observation comprised a daily observance of 150 opportunities. The other article adopted the use of a survey. It involved a 52-question survey that was anonymous. The two studies used different methods but shared the use of surveys to collect data. However, both surveys had close-ended questions. Ashraf et al. (2010) used a survey based on the CDC guidelines as the other article used to validate the questionnaire.
Direct observation allows for an event to get studied in its natural setting, thus, offering rich comprehension of the subject. However, this method has its drawbacks. This method does not allow continuous monitoring. For instance, this limitation can impact the coverage of healthcare workers. Surveys are preferred since one can collect data in a short period thanks to its ability to reach wide masses. Its limitation is that it does not offer a good way to follow trends over a short time.
Results of Study
The first article that examined the compliance among nurses and other healthcare workers on hand hygiene involved 38 staff. Nurses comprised 28, while the rest were other healthcare workers. Ashraf et al. (2014) found that the compliance to hand hygiene was 78 % according to the WHO guidelines. This rate was below the required level set at 90% in the critical care settings. Nurses reported an adherence rate of 63%, while the allied staff reported a rate of 87%. After contact with patients, the compliance rate was 93%, which is higher than the rate before contact of 63%. Also, the compliance rate before the aseptic procedure (40%) was low. The majority of the staff were aware of the health hygiene facts. On the other hand, the second article examined the need to create programs that focus on fostering hand hygiene practices in the LTCFs. This study involved 1,143 subjects in seventeen nursing facilities across the US.The study revealed that most of the healthcare workers were familiar with the CDC guidelines and maintained positive attitudesabout them. Despite the fact that the majority of the healthcare workers were familiar with the guidelines, only one-third performed better on questions regarding knowledge on the guidelines. This number scored more than 85% of the questions. The study also found that the barriers to hand hygiene, especially in the home settings were the absence of paper towels, a nearby sink, and alcohol-based hand rubs.
The anticipated outcomes for the PICOT involved reduced infections among patients in the LTCFs and the acute care facilities due to enhanced hand washing practices and compliance among the health practitioners. Additionally, it was anticipated that healthcare practitioners significantly impact patient outcomes in healthcare settings. The outcomes of the articles revealed that knowledge, barriers to hand hygiene practice, and the role of healthcare workers play crucial roles in enhancing the handwashing compliance and practices among the healthcare workers. Furthermore, compliance rates were vital in reducing rates of infection among patients in both care settings.Enhancing handwashing practices also impacts the level of infection rates among patients in care settings. For instance, continuous trainingand providing reminders play vital roles in sustaining adherence to hand hygiene.
Hand hygiene requires a multi-faceted approach to report reduced infection rates. Human resources, knowledge, and tools all have a part to play. Fostering hand hygiene compliance among healthcare practitioners will go along way in ensuring that there is no hospital-acquired infection. The articles offer interventions such as an educational program for nursing home workers, continuous verbal reminders, and continuous training to ensure compliance with hand hygiene. Following these practices will significantly improve patients’ health, reduce costs, and lead to improved life outcomes.
Ashraf, M. S., Hussain, S. W., Agarwal, N., Ashraf, S., Gabriel, E. K., Hussain, R., … &Walia, R. (2010). Hand Hygiene in Long-Term Care Facilities A Multicenter Study of Knowledge, Attitudes, Practices, and Barriers. Infection Control & Hospital Epidemiology, 31(7), 758-762.
Chavali, S., Menon, V., & Shukla, U. (2014). Hand hygiene compliance among healthcare workers in an accredited tertiary care hospital. Indian journal of critical care medicine: peer-reviewed, official publication of Indian Society of Critical Care Medicine, 18(10), 689.
Get Professional Assignment Help Cheaply
Are you busy and do not have time to handle your assignment? Are you scared that your paper will not make the grade? Do you have responsibilities that may hinder you from turning in your assignment on time? Are you tired and can barely handle your assignment? Are your grades inconsistent?
Whichever your reason is, it is valid! You can get professional academic help from our service at affordable rates. We have a team of professional academic writers who can handle all your assignments.
Why Choose Our Academic Writing Service?
- Plagiarism free papers
- Timely delivery
- Any deadline
- Skilled, Experienced Native English Writers
- Subject-relevant academic writer
- Adherence to paper instructions
- Ability to tackle bulk assignments
- Reasonable prices
- 24/7 Customer Support
- Get superb grades consistently
Online Academic Help With Different Subjects
Students barely have time to read. We got you! Have your literature essay or book review written without having the hassle of reading the book. You can get your literature paper custom-written for you by our literature specialists.
Do you struggle with finance? No need to torture yourself if finance is not your cup of tea. You can order your finance paper from our academic writing service and get 100% original work from competent finance experts.
While psychology may be an interesting subject, you may lack sufficient time to handle your assignments. Don’t despair; by using our academic writing service, you can be assured of perfect grades. Moreover, your grades will be consistent.
Engineering is quite a demanding subject. Students face a lot of pressure and barely have enough time to do what they love to do. Our academic writing service got you covered! Our engineering specialists follow the paper instructions and ensure timely delivery of the paper.
In the nursing course, you may have difficulties with literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, critical essays, and other assignments. Our nursing assignment writers will offer you professional nursing paper help at low prices.
Truth be told, sociology papers can be quite exhausting. Our academic writing service relieves you of fatigue, pressure, and stress. You can relax and have peace of mind as our academic writers handle your sociology assignment.
We take pride in having some of the best business writers in the industry. Our business writers have a lot of experience in the field. They are reliable, and you can be assured of a high-grade paper. They are able to handle business papers of any subject, length, deadline, and difficulty!
We boast of having some of the most experienced statistics experts in the industry. Our statistics experts have diverse skills, expertise, and knowledge to handle any kind of assignment. They have access to all kinds of software to get your assignment done.
Writing a law essay may prove to be an insurmountable obstacle, especially when you need to know the peculiarities of the legislative framework. Take advantage of our top-notch law specialists and get superb grades and 100% satisfaction.
What discipline/subjects do you deal in?
We have highlighted some of the most popular subjects we handle above. Those are just a tip of the iceberg. We deal in all academic disciplines since our writers are as diverse. They have been drawn from across all disciplines, and orders are assigned to those writers believed to be the best in the field. In a nutshell, there is no task we cannot handle; all you need to do is place your order with us. As long as your instructions are clear, just trust we shall deliver irrespective of the discipline.
Are your writers competent enough to handle my paper?
Our essay writers are graduates with bachelor's, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college degree. All our academic writers have a minimum of two years of academic writing. We have a stringent recruitment process to ensure that we get only the most competent essay writers in the industry. We also ensure that the writers are handsomely compensated for their value. The majority of our writers are native English speakers. As such, the fluency of language and grammar is impeccable.
What if I don’t like the paper?
There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.
- When assigning your order, we match the paper’s discipline with the writer’s field/specialization. Since all our writers are graduates, we match the paper’s subject with the field the writer studied. For instance, if it’s a nursing paper, only a nursing graduate and writer will handle it. Furthermore, all our writers have academic writing experience and top-notch research skills.
- We have a quality assurance that reviews the paper before it gets to you. As such, we ensure that you get a paper that meets the required standard and will most definitely make the grade.
In the event that you don’t like your paper:
- The writer will revise the paper up to your pleasing. You have unlimited revisions. You simply need to highlight what specifically you don’t like about the paper, and the writer will make the amendments. The paper will be revised until you are satisfied. Revisions are free of charge
- We will have a different writer write the paper from scratch.
- Last resort, if the above does not work, we will refund your money.
Will the professor find out I didn’t write the paper myself?
Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.
What if the paper is plagiarized?
We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.
When will I get my paper?
You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.
Will anyone find out that I used your services?
We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.
How our Assignment Help Service Works
1. Place an order
You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.
2. Pay for the order
Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.
3. Track the progress
You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.
4. Download the paper
The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.
PLACE THIS ORDER OR A SIMILAR ORDER WITH US TODAY AND GET A PERFECT SCORE!!!