The gender pay gap in the USA gives the ratio between male and female average earnings for all-year-round employees who work full-time; it is dependent on the source of income (Miller &Vagins, 2018). For female workers, according to various researches, the average is between78 to 85 percent of that of the males’ earnings for annual salaries that are unadjusted. If adjusted on the account of the working choices made by men and women in the line of work, the hours they work in a day, and when they go on leave, statistics show that the paying rates between men and are that a woman earns between 94 cents for every dollar a man makes (Cardoso et al. 2016). The 6 percent gap resulting from the adjusted statistics ishypothesized to emerge from unmeasured disparities, the high regard for other forms of benefits other than money, potential discrimination in gender, and differences in how people can negotiate payment. Other factors that may have impacted the wage gap are differences in levels of education, unionization (Verma, 2017), variations in age, and part-time working. This article supports the argument that the gender pay gap has affected the wage rates in the USA. it intends to discuss the case in-depth, to outline the different methodologies that have been used by various researchers to into such a conclusion, and to come up with a research methodology that aids in filling up the gap.
What drives the gender pay gap
The gender pay gap is found to have, though narrowed, remained persistent over the years despite the increased efforts by women in joining the labor force and being active in their contribution to the growth of the economy (O’Neill 2019); various researchers have explained this as a result of occupational separation, family responsibility, and career choices. Regarding professional segregation, which contributes to 50.5% of the wage inequality (Fortin, 2016), a research done by the Institute for Women’s Policy Research show that for instance, out of 10 working women, four of them work in lower-paying job where the percentage of women in that particular occupation is at least 75 percent. The research showed that female employees in any industry are often flocked where the wage distribution is lower. The career choices also highly contributes to the persistence of the gap, Research by AAUW, showed that for instance, women who chose a career in computer science had a better chances of earning more by at least 37 percent than those majoring in education, office clerks, or secretaries (Auspurg et al., 2017). The family responsibility women often have, which has a higher consequence on the kind of occupation women often choose, for instance, most women work part-time jobs as compared to men according to the Current Population Survey (CPS), so that they have enough time to look after their children, others who work on full-time basis go on leaves frequently which adversely affects their earnings.
Different methodologies have been used to determine the gender pay gap. One common method is doing the summation of all annual salaries of women working on full-time basis, all-year-round and then calculating an average, the same is done for men, after which a comparison is made for both to determine the pay gap. This method is the most commonly used by the US Census Bureau. Following research done by the Pew Research Center in 2018, statistics show that the female employees’ salaries are 85 percent of those earned by male employees in the US (Graf et al. 2018). Regarding this research, it is estimated that women would require 39 extra days to earn what their men counterparts earned. The age gap was narrower for adults aged between 25 to 34 years, and it was found that female employees earned 89 cents while a male worker in the same age limit earned a dollar. Another methodology used is the summation of weekly salaries for both men and women, and then finding a median to compare the gap; this method is commonly used by the Bureau of Labor Statistics and gives a lesser gap as compared to the annual computation. Both are sound methodologies, as the difference is very minimal.
My research contributes to narrowing this gap as it proves that the pay gap is not as entirely as a result of discrimination but instead as a failure of statistical adjustment to counter the factors that make earnings of both men and women different (Pham et al. 2018). These factors themselves are however affected by somewhat gender bias that exists in the labor force, for instance, for a woman to earn her first dollar, she needs to have studied for many years, have gone through various mentoring programs, and had intense training which is not the same for men, hence the domination of women in lower-paying occupations (Blau&Kahn, 2017). Making statistical adjustments putting into account the different factors such as the type of occupation, the hours worked. If they are working on part-time or full-time basis, that unadjusted data ignores helps to reduce the gap by a margin of about 15 cents. If the industry put this into account when giving salaries to their female employees, then there would be a change in perspective that women should get lower wages as compared to their male counterparts.
In conclusion, it is crystal clear that the gender pay gap hurts women in society in many ways. In the attempt to understand why this gap exists, women should not at all be blamed for earning lesser, and instead, the focus should be to analyze and comprehend why there are unequal opportunities in education and career choices for women (Dunn, 2018). This should be the first step to undertake in an attempt to close the gender pay gap that exists, there are various steps that can be taken, and one would be increase the participation of women in the labor market, place more women in management positions and ensuring that gender parity is enforced in the future.
Ahn, H., Roll, S. J., Zeng, W., Frey, J. J., Reiman, S., &Ko, J. (2016). Impact of income inequality on workers’ life satisfaction in the US: A multilevel analysis. Social Indicators Research, 128(3), 1347-1363.
Auspurg, K., Hinz, T., & Sauer, C. (2017). Why should women get less? Evidence on the gender pay gap from multifactorial survey experiments. American Sociological Review, 82(1), 179-210.
Barth, E., Bryson, A., Davis, J. C., & Freeman, R. (2016). It’s where you work: Increases in the dispersion of earnings across establishments and individuals in the United States. Journal of Labor Economics, 34(S2), S67-S97.
Blau, F. D., & Kahn, L. M. (2017). The gender wage gap: Extent, trends, and explanations. Journal of Economic Literature, 55(3), 789-865.
Cardoso, A. R., Guimarães, P., & Portugal, P. (2016). What drives the gender wage gap? A look at the role of firm and job-title heterogeneity. Oxford Economic Papers, 68(2), 506-524.
Dunn, K. (2018). Book review: the cost of being a girl: working teens and the origins of the gender wage gap by YaseminBesen-Cassino. LSE Review of Books.
Fortin, N. (2016, June). Earnings Inequality and the Gender Pay Gap.In State of the Art Lecture, CEA Meetings.
Graf, N., Brown, A., & Patten, E. (2018).The narrowing, but persistent, gender gap in pay. Pew Research Center, April, 9.
Miller, K., &Vagins, D. J. (2018). The simple truth about the gender pay gap. American Association of University Women.
O’Neill, S. (2019). Gender pay gap grows. New Scientist, 241(3223), 45.
Pham, X., Fitzpatrick, L., & Wagner, R. (2018). The US gender pay gap: the way forward. International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, 38(9/10), 907-920.
Verma, A. (2017). What do unions do to the workplace? Union effects on management and HRM policies. In What Do Unions Do? (pp. 275-311). Routledge.
Get Professional Assignment Help Cheaply
Are you busy and do not have time to handle your assignment? Are you scared that your paper will not make the grade? Do you have responsibilities that may hinder you from turning in your assignment on time? Are you tired and can barely handle your assignment? Are your grades inconsistent?
Whichever your reason is, it is valid! You can get professional academic help from our service at affordable rates. We have a team of professional academic writers who can handle all your assignments.
Why Choose Our Academic Writing Service?
- Plagiarism free papers
- Timely delivery
- Any deadline
- Skilled, Experienced Native English Writers
- Subject-relevant academic writer
- Adherence to paper instructions
- Ability to tackle bulk assignments
- Reasonable prices
- 24/7 Customer Support
- Get superb grades consistently
Online Academic Help With Different Subjects
Students barely have time to read. We got you! Have your literature essay or book review written without having the hassle of reading the book. You can get your literature paper custom-written for you by our literature specialists.
Do you struggle with finance? No need to torture yourself if finance is not your cup of tea. You can order your finance paper from our academic writing service and get 100% original work from competent finance experts.
While psychology may be an interesting subject, you may lack sufficient time to handle your assignments. Don’t despair; by using our academic writing service, you can be assured of perfect grades. Moreover, your grades will be consistent.
Engineering is quite a demanding subject. Students face a lot of pressure and barely have enough time to do what they love to do. Our academic writing service got you covered! Our engineering specialists follow the paper instructions and ensure timely delivery of the paper.
In the nursing course, you may have difficulties with literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, critical essays, and other assignments. Our nursing assignment writers will offer you professional nursing paper help at low prices.
Truth be told, sociology papers can be quite exhausting. Our academic writing service relieves you of fatigue, pressure, and stress. You can relax and have peace of mind as our academic writers handle your sociology assignment.
We take pride in having some of the best business writers in the industry. Our business writers have a lot of experience in the field. They are reliable, and you can be assured of a high-grade paper. They are able to handle business papers of any subject, length, deadline, and difficulty!
We boast of having some of the most experienced statistics experts in the industry. Our statistics experts have diverse skills, expertise, and knowledge to handle any kind of assignment. They have access to all kinds of software to get your assignment done.
Writing a law essay may prove to be an insurmountable obstacle, especially when you need to know the peculiarities of the legislative framework. Take advantage of our top-notch law specialists and get superb grades and 100% satisfaction.
What discipline/subjects do you deal in?
We have highlighted some of the most popular subjects we handle above. Those are just a tip of the iceberg. We deal in all academic disciplines since our writers are as diverse. They have been drawn from across all disciplines, and orders are assigned to those writers believed to be the best in the field. In a nutshell, there is no task we cannot handle; all you need to do is place your order with us. As long as your instructions are clear, just trust we shall deliver irrespective of the discipline.
Are your writers competent enough to handle my paper?
Our essay writers are graduates with bachelor's, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college degree. All our academic writers have a minimum of two years of academic writing. We have a stringent recruitment process to ensure that we get only the most competent essay writers in the industry. We also ensure that the writers are handsomely compensated for their value. The majority of our writers are native English speakers. As such, the fluency of language and grammar is impeccable.
What if I don’t like the paper?
There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.
- When assigning your order, we match the paper’s discipline with the writer’s field/specialization. Since all our writers are graduates, we match the paper’s subject with the field the writer studied. For instance, if it’s a nursing paper, only a nursing graduate and writer will handle it. Furthermore, all our writers have academic writing experience and top-notch research skills.
- We have a quality assurance that reviews the paper before it gets to you. As such, we ensure that you get a paper that meets the required standard and will most definitely make the grade.
In the event that you don’t like your paper:
- The writer will revise the paper up to your pleasing. You have unlimited revisions. You simply need to highlight what specifically you don’t like about the paper, and the writer will make the amendments. The paper will be revised until you are satisfied. Revisions are free of charge
- We will have a different writer write the paper from scratch.
- Last resort, if the above does not work, we will refund your money.
Will the professor find out I didn’t write the paper myself?
Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.
What if the paper is plagiarized?
We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.
When will I get my paper?
You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.
Will anyone find out that I used your services?
We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.
How our Assignment Help Service Works
1. Place an order
You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.
2. Pay for the order
Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.
3. Track the progress
You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.
4. Download the paper
The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.
PLACE THIS ORDER OR A SIMILAR ORDER WITH US TODAY AND GET A PERFECT SCORE!!!