European and American imperialism from 1900-1918
Empire is the term from which the word imperialism is carved. Government implies the act of mastery of one nation by another one, with the sole intention of expanding region, power and impact. It conveys with it the thought of social prevalence from the radical, judging the lifestyle, cultures and convictions of those colonized as sub-par and in need of changeover (Encyclopedia, encyclopedia.com).
Nonetheless, Imperialism normally posits as a political control and making monetary subservience. In Europe, the time of dominion coincided with patriotism and unification when prior political units were assembled under governance that asserted the privilege to keep rule over them. “I rehash that the elite races [European] have a privilege in light of the fact that they have an obligation. They have the obligation to socialize the downtrodden races [non Europeans] (South Africa History, n.d.)”
Ashley Smith the journalist isolated hypotheses of the American dominion into 5 general classes: liberal percepts, Leninist hypotheses, social-democratic hypotheses, hypotheses of super-colonialism, and Hardt-and-Negri-ite theory. Colonialism normally takes after political control and this makes financial subservience. For Europe, the time of colonialism concurred with developing patriotism and unification when d partitioned political units until then were united under one monarch. Unification was there to permit realm building on the grounds that individuals were accumulated under a government that asserted the privilege, and a privilege which was there to control them. Cases are German and Italian unification. Towards the end of the nineteenth century, government turned into an arrangement of colonial extension sought after by diverse European powers (South Africa History, sahistory.org).
European Imperialism- From Trading to Power
Amid the couple of decades (1900-1918), the development of the business in Europe was because of the colonialist’s desire to rule Africa. Europe formed business relations with African rulers and made them to do business with them only. European merchants were to begin with not keen on venturing into the African mainland and interiors. The assured supply of slaves by African rulers was reason enough to avoid the interiors of continent. The quick extension of businesses made European nations look to African for a supply of (slave) work and cheap ores and raw materials (Imperialism and Socialism, sahistory.org).
The western Africa was vital for the development of industry and business in Europe. For instance, the African palm oil, which was utilized as industrial oil was in huge demand in European nations. By taking control of African domains, the European nations knew they could secure supply of cheap raw materials that would guarantee industrial propensity and financial growth. Then again, the provincial governments, organized agricultural produce to match the interest for raw material in Europe (Imperialism and Socialism, sahistory.org).
European governments empowered their kin (residents) to settle permanently in African states under their control and influence, and they were given farmlands to till. Subsequently, expansion of imperial Europe into the African mainland saw numerous African agriculturists being taken as workers to work in these ranches. For the African population, it caused loss of land and prosperity, and some Africans got uprooted that broke the social structure. Those who stayed on their property and plantations were compelled to into growing cash crops, for example, tobacco, cotton, sugar and espresso that were vital for European commercial ventures, rather than their conventional staple yields, making survival difficult. Even for these they were paid paltry sums, in comparison to the costs fetched in Europe. Lack of governmental support made African production costs higher and were no competition for European competition. Subsequently, African businesses and riches suffered and the entire continent had to engage with unfair European markets economically. This resulted in precarious situation for the entire continent, both economically and market wise (Imperialism and Socialism, sahistory.org).
Industrial unrest was at its peak. Yet, Europe was eyeing opportunities abroad to expand their businesses. As a result they saw Africa, and Asia, as viable options to acquire cheap raw material needed for Europe’s industrial facilities. Also, they had to find regions for their extra populace. This is the reason this new colonialism (1900-1918) held the guarantee of flourishing monetarily from Africa (Imperialism and Socialism, sahistory.org).
American imperialism- Domination and Economic Considerations
Exports had become central for industrial and business activity for America in 1900. They in fact more than tripled, rising from about $400 million in 1870 to over $1.5 billion in 1900. By 1914, American interests in Central and Latin America alone added up to $1.26 billion. By 1910, Americans took control of, or owned Forty-Three percent of Mexican property, and extracted and processed more than 50% of Mexico’s oil. The U.S. government formed bilateral agreements with Colombia, Mexico, El Salvador, the British West Indies, the Dominican Republic, Cuba and Spanish-commanded Puerto Rico. Subsequently, Central and Latin American nations traded more crude materials to U.S.. In exchange, the U.S. made a business sector in Central and Latin America for goods manufactured in America. So, these respective financial bargains permitted American business to command Central and Latin American economies. While nearby countries could trade raw material, their own potential for manufacture sector development was by U.S. exports. (American dominion, users.humboldt.edu).
Through these agreements, a kind of monetary colonialism had emerged and slowly had turned into an acknowledged type of foreign policy. Furthermore, the objectives were financial, social, and political:
â€¢ Economic – We required new markets to sell off our products and sustain our economic growth.
â€¢ Social – We were committed to advance our living standards to those nations that we assumed needed our assistance thereto.
â€¢ Political – We expected to escape from 10 years that had partitioned us through sorrow, worker’s unrest riots and, strikes, and enter an era of solidarity which could be fulfilled by broadening our political and economic strength
Power and Authority
In 1901, the American troops withdrew from Cuba after managing to assure the development of a constitution that supported U.S. needs, which took 3 years. Withdrawal was affected only after the Cubans consented to sign the Platt Amendment that set out a few conditions to which the Cuban Government needed to concur before the withdrawal of U.S. armed forces and restoration of sovereignty:
â€¢ Provide land for American army bases;
â€¢ Sign no settlement with any country that may be unfavorable to America;
â€¢ Acknowledge the privilege of the U.S. To intercede to secure its own interests in Cuba; and â€¢avail permanent occupation of Guantanamo Bay to the U.S.
The justification behind the Platt Amendment was clear: the U.S. mediated in Cuba with a specific end goal to shield its large business engagements on the island and as the U.S. military control of the island was deemed to end, the U.S. required some strategy for keeping up a perpetual presence and control (American colonialism, users.humbol.edu)
In 1915, President Wilson took action on the demands from American banks to which Haiti had taken huge debts by being in occupation in the nation. The same year, the United States Marines, supervised the election of the Haitian National Assembly that chose a president who agreed to making Haiti an American protectorate, resulting in American authorities controlling the Financial Adviser, the Constabulary, Customs Receivership, Public Health Service, and the Public Works Service for ten years. In 1916,the U.S. Marines intervened to dissipate disobedience. The Dominicans declined to an arrangement providing for U.S. control of the republic’s funds and military, following which the marines assumed control and established a military rule (American colonialism, users.humboldt.edu).
In 1900, American congress approved of the Foraker Act (otherwise called the Organic Act of 1900) that installed a civilian government, legal framework, and free trade between the United States and Puerto Rico. The Foraker Act additionally did away with the local, prevalent law that constrained the possession for one individual to 500 sections of land of area, hence changing Puerto Rico’s farming economy into a sugar monoculture economy and giving American sugar organizations leeway over the local sugar estate managers. The native managers from there on confronted premium rates of interest at banks (as against the low rates that the American organizations got from the business banks in Wall Street) and new levies which forced many either into insolvency or into offering their possessions to the all the more powerful and bigger American sugar organizations (American colonialism, users.humboldt.edu).
In 1917, the American legislature passed the Jones Act making Puerto Rico a United States domain which is “composed however unincorporated.” Puerto Ricans were additionally aggregately given U.S. citizenship however don’t have the right to vote in United States presidential decision or representatives of Congress. They have a representative in the U.S. House of Representatives who is restricted to vote in congressional panels (American government, users.humboldt.edu).
Clash of Imperialist nations- the WW1
Fundamentally, by the beginning of the twentieth century, Europe was tormented by what was called “five natural shortcomings” by Dr. Joachim Remak. These shortcomings prompted the World War I. These include:
Historical and contemporary frictions
Temporary alliances that was often at odds with each other
An overbearing press
Of all these, was mainly responsible for policies that prompted the flare-up of WWI. Numerous history scholars allude to this period as an age which Europeans and America possessed or controlled most Africa and Asia (World War I, users.humboldt.edu).
In any case, riches and influence was depicted by colonial influences and each nation’s well-being and growth and propensity on its capacity to keep up and extend its empire. Scramble for domain achieved rivalry among different imperial rulers. By twentieth century:
a) Africa was 90% under European control with Britain and France owning a large portion of the mainland.
b) Britain was predominant in India – which turns into the centerpiece of its domain.
c) China was controlled by different players that through mutual agreements had made effective influential regions of their own..
Regional one-upmanship was wrought by gains and losses by the year 1900. England was the strongest of all domains. Its domain was 100 times its own region. Then again, amid the nineteenth Century, a few domains and sovereign countries expanded their geopolitical reach at the cost of another empire. The ensuing friction for greater share of dominion resulted in widespread friction by both the losers who sought to regain lost areas and the usurpers that sought to flex its muscles into larger domains of authority (Grafs History, grafshistory.com)
The Historical Realm
The quickly growing realms appeared to have no awareness about the severity that foolhardy colonialism brought between contending domains, nor did they appear to see how dominion affected the legislative issues of erstwhile sovereign countries that went under foreign control. Thusly, extreme imperialism highlighted a second inherent shortcoming – longstanding and contemporary grievances among the European powers. At the time of breakout of war, four noteworthy historical causes of friction existed in Europe:
â€¢ Russia vs. The Ottoman Empire
â€¢ Russia vs. The Austro-Hungarian Empire
â€¢ Germany vs. France
â€¢ Germany vs. England
These grievances were about extension and loss of empires. As one domain extended, some other contracted – leaving those countries, ethnic groups, with feelings of hatred and bitterness about colonization and chances of regaining independence. Subsequently, these chronicled and contemporary grievances was clearly communicated through the third natural shortcoming – temporary alliances that were often at odds with each other that emerged around the end of the nineteenth Century (World War I, users.humboldt.edu)
The Military Cooperation
Western Europe, the Balkans, the Ottoman Empire, and Russia got engaged into progressively difficult cooperation’s – understandings between two or more nations that vowed to battle with one another in times of war and to backing one another in times of peace in many different ways. Associations, then, are assertions of shared preference made between countries with common foes; they are not treaties of backing for common goals. Some of these associations included:
â€¢ Entente Cordiale of 1904: Britain and France consented to settle all debates about respective colonies – particularly in Morocco and Egypt. Opened path for possibility of military cooperation.
â€¢ Anglo-Russian Accord of 1907: Britain and Russia consented to settle all disputes about colonial possessions – particularly in Tibet, Persia, and Afghanistan. The Accord prompted the formation of the Triple Entente – Britain, Russia, and France.
By 1907, Europe was separated into two by hostility: the Allies, or the Triple Entente, of Britain, France, and Russia, and the Central Powers of Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy. The result of these unions was the division of two isolated and armed groups that existed in Europe by 1914. In this way, one offense against any European countries may eventually attract that country’s associate, and that is partner, or associates. The collusions rivaled each other so much that crisis situation even in a small nation like Balkans could start off the World War (World War I, users.humboldt.edu).
The Role of Press
A European and American press more interested in sales of dailies and newspapers than with telling the neutral story of the problems and temporary alliances together realized by dominion added to the effectively delicate situation in Europe in 1914. Therefore, the intemperate presses of Europe served to plug the last natural shortcoming – unbridled patriotism (World War I, users.humboldt.edu).
Encyclopedia. “Imperialism.” Encyclopedia.com. HighBeam Research, 1 Jan. 1968. Web. 25 Jan. 2015. http://www.encyclopedia.com/topic/imperialism.aspx
Grafs History. Word War 1: Consequences of the Great War. (2014). Retrieved from: https://grafshistory.wordpress.com
Humbold. Goal. The American Quest for Empire. Retrieved from:
Humbold. Goal. Causes and Consequences of World War I. Retrieved from: http://users.humboldt.edu/ogayle/hist111/WWI.html
International Communist Review. International Communist Review – Imperialist War – Imperialist Peace: The Impact of the World War I and the Treaty of Trianon on Our Time. Retrieved from: http://www.iccr.gr/en/news/Imperialist-war-imperialist-peace-the-impact-of-the-World-War-I-and-the-Treaty-of-Trianon-on-our-time/
Joy, J. Cold war. (2013). Retrieved from: http://www.slideshare.net/mynameisjustinejoy/cold-war-justine-joy-o-fresnido-iii-st-catherine-of-siena
South Africa History. Imperialism: Imperialism in Africa. (n.d.). Retrieved from: http://v1.sahistory.org.za/pages/hands-on-classroom/classroom/pages/projects/grade11/lesson9/01-Imperialism-Africa.htm
The post-war period and the Cold War. (n.d.). Retrieved from: http://reftrend.ru/475708.html
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