Is it a strength or a weakness that psychology has a diversity of approaches?
Psychology has come a long way in its history to get to where it is now. It is employed in so many facets of our lives that we are often unaware of it. It was once dismissed as “nonsense” and “unscientific,” but now psychology is an essential aspect of the scientific community’s understanding of the mind, human behavior, and motivations. According to research, various workgroups produce better cognitive processing and information exchange. People can learn from each other because diversity brings new ideas and experiences. Different thoughts and views help us solve problems more effectively. Diversity is present in all aspects of our life and serves a crucial role, even if it is only in helping us survive. In psychology, there are five major approaches. Biological, psychodynamic, behavioral, cognitive, and humanistic are some of them. Each method tries to explain human behavior differently. A viewpoint that includes certain assumptions about human behavior is referred to as approach.
The physiological approach suggests that biological elements have a with our behavior and mental health, similar to how exposure to a disease can induce illness. Biological factors include genes passed down from one’s parents, which psychologists believe can influence whether a person is predisposed to certain diseases. The central nervous system (CNS), which includes the brain and spinal cord, is also studied using a biological approach. This studies suggest how the brain can adapt to changing circumstances, such as the need to remember information, through biochemical changes known as neuroplasticity.The biological approach aims to comprehend individuals as a series of chemical interactions. Scientists have been able to pinpoint the role performed by various regions of the brain as technology breakthroughs have enhanced their ability to analyze processes occurring within the brain.This technological advancement is a strength in the medical sector and thus a merit of diversity of approaches in psychology.
In order to understand a person’s behavior, the evolutionary approach looks at their biological makeup. Whereas physiological theories point to activity within an individual’s brain, the evolutionary perspective posits that the mind has been fine-tuned over millions of years in reaction to its environment.]Evolutionary psychologists believe that evolutionary principles can be applied to human behavior. Many people believe that stress is a byproduct of humans’ evolution to survive predators (Entwistle, 2021). The body will go into a state of awareness as part of the to a threat in order to fend off or flee an aggressor. Stress, on the other hand, no longer provides a considerable survival advantage as it did for our forefathers. The method has been chastised for being reductionist and failing to account for individual differences among individuals.This is a weakness in this approach of psychology
The behavioral approach argues that each individual is born with a clean slate. Behaviorists think that our outer conduct is dictated by our external environment rather than genes and biological processes.(Amir, 2020).As a result of his or her life experiences, a person is moulded to behave in a certain way. Behaviorists focus on a person’s outward behavior rather than their internal mental processes (Walton 1913). The extent to which non-human behavior may be extended to humans, on the other hand, is debatable. The behavioral method is likewise reductionist in its focus on behavior, failing to account for internal activity such as ideas and emotions, which are more difficult to monitor. Furthermore, it does not explain the individual variances in behavior observed among people who have lived under similar circumstances.This causes a challenge in this approach to psychology hence a weakness
The cognitive approach to human behavior contrasts from the behaviorists’. It examines the internal, cognitive processes that lead a person to act in a certain way rather than merely witnessing behavior. It focuses on memory, emotions, perception, problem-solving, and language encoding, consolidation, and retrieval (Ulric 1967). Existing information about people, places, objects, and events, known as schemas, influences how we perceive and think about encounters in our daily lives, according to cognitive psychologists. The study shows that processes of the thought are very difficult to measure. This is because our actions are used to measure our internal thoughts .
Based on these approaches, we can clearly deduce that the diversity of approach in psychology is a weakness. This is evidenced by the challenges posed by each approach mentioned. Moreover, most of these approaches contradict each other hence cannot be used in support of each other.
Entwistle, D. N. (2021). Integrative Approaches To Psychology And Christianity: An Introduction To Worldview Issues, Philosophical Foundations, And Models Of Integration. Wipf And Stock Publishers.
Amir, D., & Mcauliffe, K. (2020). Cross-Cultural, Developmental Psychology: Integrating Approaches And Key Insights. Evolution And Human Behavior, 41(5), 430-444.
Dwyer, D. B., Falkai, P., & Koutsouleris, N. (2018). Machine Learning Approaches For Clinical Psychology And Psychiatry. Annual Review Of Clinical Psychology, 14, 91-118.
Plh, C. (2018). Narrative Psychology As Cultural Psychology 1. In The Challenges Of Cultural Psychology (Pp. 237-249). Routledge.
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