Depression as a significant health problem in India

Annotated Bibliography

Balakrishnan, P., Amali, J., & Mufeethkhan, K. (2018). Laughter therapy on depression. The Journal of Nursing Trendz, 9(2), 21-23.

The article starts by indicating that the significant health problem in India is depression, as the majority of the people in the country suffer from it. There was a research conducted to test the effectiveness of laughter as a means of controlling and healing depression among the people living not only in the nursing homes but also in public. They selected 30 individuals residing in nursing homes and were HVV infected. It was proven that the majority of the people who are HIV infected are depressed and need readily available intervention, and that is not stressing to administer. After using laughter as a therapy, it was sure the change that occurred in the lives of those people as they managed to lead a bearable life with a simple act of laughter, giving them hope of survival.

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Dogan, M. D. (2020). The Effect of Laughter Therapy on Anxiety: A Meta-analysis. Holistic nursing practice, 34(1), 35-39.

The article is a meta-analysis that was conducted to determine the effect that laughter therapy has on anxiety. The research included 157 participants who were on the treatment of depression. The study used the hormonal analysis of the hormones that are triggered by laughter and the effect they have on the hormones in the brain that caused mood destabilization. It was sure that laughter manages to reverse the stress that is caused by other factors and control the circuit in the brain that causes anxiety.

Kuru, N., & Kublay, G. (2017). The effect of laughter therapy on the quality of life of nursing home residents. Journal of clinical nursing, 26(21-22), 3354-3362.

This article seeks to extend the lives of the people living in nursing homes and who are undergoing mental health problems such as depression. A research was carried out in 32 different nursing homes where laughter was used as a therapy to control the mood of the people in the homes. The session was two days a week, and the total lessons were 21 at the end of the study. The research indicated that laughter was among the best therapies that need to be adopted to reverse depression as it showed that the life of the patients in the nursing homes changed significantly, which was demonstrated by a quality-of-life score of the patients. The research concluded that laughter therapy should be integrated into nursing homes as a routine, and the result will be okay.


Yim, J. (2016). Therapeutic benefits of laughter in mental health: a theoretical review. The Tohoku journal of experimental medicine, 239(3), 243-249.

Yim (2016) argues that laughter is among the best avenues to deal with mental health as it need not any expenses such as equipment but instead comes automatically. He states that laughter is a positive sensation and has been proven to overcome stress and goes ahead to categorize it as cognitive-behavioral therapies that make physical, psychological, and social relationships better. The result is improved quality of life. Today laughter has been included as a therapy in the department of mental health and doing away with the old ways of handling the same. The stress-making hormone that is found in the blood is reduced by laughter as it decreases serum levels of cortisol, epinephrine hormone, and that results in a reversal of the stress response. He describes depression as a disease that is brought about by the mood control circuit in the brain being affected by the reduction of the neurotransmitters found in the brain, such as dopamine, norepinephrine. Laughter secretes endorphins, which help the people to reverse the mood that they bare it while stressed or depressed.

Grant, W. M. (2017). Humor in Medicine: A Literature Review of Humor’s Potential Therapeutic Value in Health Care.

Applying laughter and humor in the healthcare department has considerable potential to become significant to the healthcare providers and patients during recovery. Also, that would help to establish a positive patient-physician relationship, to improve the subjective wellbeing of physicians and the surrounding’s influence on group associations, for example, colleagues. This literature review analyzes the physiological and mental effects of humor and laughter on the body and the overall health. The author also reviews how laughter and fun enhance the patient-healthcare relationships and the potential of laughter and humor to influence physician burnout. They also discuss several potential implications of these results, such as improving medical education, professional clinical comedians, as well as the theoretical utilization of humor and laughter. Overall, humor and laughter have a positive impact on human physiological and physical health in addition to improving the patient-physician relationship. Also, they enhance the overall atmosphere in healthcare facilities, creative, positive surroundings for both patients and physicians.

Yoshikawa, Y., Ohmaki, E., Kawahata, H., Maekawa, Y., Ogihara, T., Morishita, R., & Aoki, M. (2019). The beneficial effect of laughter therapy on physiological and psychological function in elders. Nursing Open, 6(1), 93-99.

The current study demonstrates interventions through laughter therapy each week for a month in elderly care facilities results in a significant drop in blood pressure and hypertension. Also, laughter therapy alleviates physical pain and geriatric depression as well as improving socialization accompanied by a considerable reduction in levels of salivary CgA and increased levels of serotonin. These findings indicate the beneficial impacts of laughter therapy on mental and physiological functions, although the former showed an insignificant effect on cognitive function. The results also support the clinical advantage of laughter therapy and consequently creates opportunities for new approaches to enhance mental and physical wellbeing in older citizens. In a nation where the population of aged individuals with QOL and ADL impairments continues to increase, therapy proves to be a cheap, practical, and safe treatment that medics can utilize.

Robinson, L. (2019). Laughter is the Best Medicine. Retrieved from

Laughter is a powerful therapy that draws different people together in diverse ways that improve the emotional and physical health changes in the human body. The author of this article reviews the various benefits of laughter at individual and group levels. For instance, laughter boosts the human immune system, reduces the adverse effects of stress, improves a person’s moods, and alleviates pain. Additionally, laughter lightens a person’s mental burden, connects people, inspires home, and keeps individuals alert, focused, and grounded. Humor works faster to restore mental and bodily balance through acts like releasing anger and helping people to forgive quickly. With such potential to renew and heal, laughter and humor form a significant resource to address surmounting social problems and enhancing interpersonal relationships. They also support human emotional and physical wellbeing. Most importantly, laughter therapy is readily available, free, and acceptable.

Law, M. M., Broadbent, E. A., & Sollers, J. J. (2018). A comparison of the cardiovascular effects of simulated and spontaneous laughter. Complementary therapies in medicine, 37, 103-109.

People have always considered laughter as beneficial to physical and mental wellbeing, but there is little information regarding the mechanisms of laughter to produce these health benefits. The present study compares the acute cardiovascular impacts of stimulated and spontaneous laughter. The findings indicate that stimulated laughter has a considerably lower rMSSD and a higher heart rate compared to spontaneous laughter. Subsequent hierarchical regressions suggested that a discrepancy in heart rate resulted from more laughter produced by stimulated conditions. The variation in rMSSD was distinct to the stimulated laughter even the researchers controlled the levels of hilarity. The aroused state produced a substantially lower average HR during the stressful task, but this became insignificant after regulating the produced laughter. In essence, laughter contributes to decreased heart rate variability and increased heart rates, similar to the impacts of physical exercise. Stimulated laughter produced more of these findings.

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