molecules collide with enough activation energy that the chemical bonds break. Once these chemical bonds are broken, new bonds and products are then formed. Thus, the two previous molecules were moving at a fast enough speed to break the original chemical bonds to form new products.
The two molecules must be moving fast enough and have enough activation energy to break the original chemical bonds. Also, the two original atoms must have the right orientation in order to properly line up in the right position to actual be able to collide successfully.
The two molecules need sufficient activation energy, which comes from the energy seen in the collision to activate the process of reworking the chemical bonds.
The bonds that are being made release the energy required to break the older bonds.
e. Bond making generates more energy than is often required for the breaking of the old bonds. Thus, there needs to be a minimum energy in the collision to provide for the initial bond breaking that occurs right before bond making supplies more energy for the process.
h. The reaction is exothermic because it releases energy during the formation of the new products.
i. The two molecules must have the right alignment in order to have a favorable orientation for collision. The I-(aq) must collide with the Chapter 3 portion of the molecule in order to form the right products.
40. Reaction 2 would most likely have the greatest forward reaction rate because it has the greatest difference between the temperature at activation energy and when the products are formed. This means that there are more concentrations of the atoms to work with, leading to that reaction having more forward reaction rates.
44.Dynamic equilibrium states occur when the concentrations of the reactants steadily decrease and the concentrations of the products steadily increase. This means there is a simultaneous decrease in forward rate of the reaction and the same level of increase in the reverse reaction. This trend continues until both processes reach an equal rate, which is when they are at a state of equilibrium. Therefore, the reactants and products are constantly changing back and forth with no net change in total.
55. a. Neither reactants nor products favored
b. Products favored at equilibrium
c. Reactants favored at equilibrium
63. Increasing the temperature of this reaction increases the rate of the endergonic reaction more so than the exergonic reaction. This means that the equilibrium will be disrupted and the reaction will become more endergonic. As a result, increasing the temperature of the reaction will generate more products, ultimately increasing the ratio of products and reactants and increasing the equilibrium constant.
67. a. Adding CO increases the concentration of CO. This makes the reaction go in a forward direction in order to maintain the system equilibrium. Essentially, when you change the concentration ingredient, this will shift the equilibrium to the side that reduces the change in concentration.
b. When you decrease the concentration of CH3OH, the reaction system actually goes in the reverse, or backwards, direction.
c. When you constantly remove products, you are essentially decreasing their concentration. Therefore, in order to keep the equilibrium constant, K, the reaction needs to shift forward to compensate for the reduced concentration of the initial products.
d. The reaction here is endothermic, therefore by decreasing the temperature from 300 to 175 will decrease the rate of forward reaction.
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