Change management models paper

Change management

Change management refers to the shift or transitioning in scope by individuals, groups, firms, and projects to meet changing requirements and goals. Change provides an opportunity to transform the current state of operation in a factory setting to ensure the realization of set goals and growth. The need to achieve high production at reduced costs may push investors to employ drastic measures to enable the firm to realize a tremendous competitive advantage. Change management serves as an ongoing process that facilitates the introduction of new approaches to looking at the administrative process (Hornstein, 2015). The new managers develop an effective analytical procedure to determine problem areas and suggest practical change theories and process models to facilitate the realization of stakeholder goals and objectives. Change management targets different departments and levels in an organization, such as operations, finance, marketing, and human resources. Although different change process models provide measures for improvement, Lewin’s 3-step process and Kotter’s 8-step model provide practical models because they facilitate transitions without interfering with the production process.

Diagnostic Models

Lewin’s 3-Step process

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Lewin’s 3-step change management model serves as one of the known and practical strategies in change management. It facilitates the process of understanding administration and structural change (Hossan, 2015). Kurt Lewin developed and formed the model in the 1950s to respond to the administrative issues faced by firms at the time. The model still serves the current field of administration. A physicist and a social scientist, Lewin used a block of ice to explain the changes in an organization. He said that structured or organizational change takes time as the block of ice when it goes through different changing states before the realization of the final product. Lewin’s model provides a practical approach to split the change process into smaller bits that allow for the consideration of people and processes involved. Lewin described his change management process in three stages, known as unfreeze, make changes, and refreeze.


Lewin suggests an adequate analysis of the existing process as a strategy for enabling sufficient preparations. The first stage in Lewin’s change management model, unfreeze, allows the administrators to prepare for the expected transformations (Hossan, 2015; Cummings et al., 2015). The management realizes and appreciates the need for change; hence, management leadership puts effective measures to ensure that the organization meets and incorporates necessary changes effectively. The phase allows management leadership to identity those who favor the existing status quo; thus, try to resist change and initiate measures to enable them to reconsider their position and join the change initiative. Changing perceptions on the need for change involves the participation of the management leadership in explaining to proponents of status quo the need for change and its relationship to high returns. At the unfreeze step, the management observes and re-examine the core components of administration and production to identify problem areas and suggest changes.


It represents the step where the management of an organization implements transition or change strategies. The stage consumes time because it involves a consideration of the suggested change initiatives; hence, people take time to appreciate new happenings, growth, and transitions (Hossan, 2015). The stage brings the quality of leadership and the structure they use to test. The administrators should endeavor to promote ethical leadership and reassure junior employees to facilitate the implementation process. The administrators should elaborate to the employees on the effectiveness of the change process in steering the production process in the right direction based on the need to simplify the production process. The success of the change management stage relies on the ability of the management to develop and use effective communication channels to enhance the change of ideas between different departments during the transition process. Effective communication and adequate time provide an enabling environment for the implementation of the change process.


The second stage oversees the acceptance, appreciation, and implementation of the transition process. The process of implementing change focusses on the transition of the people and the firm. The final stage involves the realization of stability in the process of production. Refreeze refers to the concept of change that denotes the attainment of balance at all levels of management and production (Hossan, 2015). The team realizes a return to the first routine of doing organization-related endeavors. The final stage does not stop at the implementation of change strategies and the realization of the set goals. Instead, it pushes parties involved to observe and maintain effective methods after the achievement of the initial objectives for change. It allows the organization to support effective measures in the production process; hence, it maintains a high competitive advantage above other players in the industry.

Kotter’s 8-Step Change Model

Kotter’s management change model pays little attention to the change and more on the individuals involved in creating the changes. The chief proponent of the change model, John P. Kotter, suggested that there exists the need to inspire a sense of necessity for transition while maintaining the intensity of the production process (Small et al., 2016). The theory offers practical strategies for transforming business operations to meet the contemporary climate in the business world. Kotter divided his change strategy into eight stages that focus change specific principles based on the responses of people affected by the transition. Kotter’s 8-step model include;


Develop a Sense of Necessity

The administrators identify the individuals involved in the process of production at specific points. It consists of the motivation of the identified individuals to enhance the realization of set objectives (Small et al., 2016). Setting a sense of urgency enables the management to include staff members in the endeavors for development. Competitor analysis gives the firm traction in meeting the set goals and objectives for the firm.

Build a Core Team

The second stage in Kotter’s change model involves the identification of the right people in the transition team to enhance the realization of the set objectives. Based on a mix of knowledge, earnestness, and skills, the management selects a set of individuals to contribute to the transition process and make it a success (Lv & Zhang, 2017). The administration should ask the team chosen to express their commitment to positive transformation.

Remodel the Vision

The administration uses information from interactions with different aspects of the organization to develop the vision to guide the process. The vision statement considers procedures, skills, emotional connection, and the goals of the intervention process (Lv & Zhang, 2017). The vision statement informs all the parties about the values that the change process endeavor to achieve; hence, it gives the parties a precise platform for effecting the change process.

Include Everyone through Effective Communication

Effective communication forms an essential component of Kotter’s management change model. It enables the participants to share critical information that adds to the efforts in need to realize growth in the organization (Lv & Zhang, 2017). It enables the administrators to communicate the vision of the project to the junior staff. Finally, it offers a practical channel for motivating the team to work towards suggested change initiatives.

Initiate Action

The need to realize the set vision prompts administrators to start related activities. However, the management should ask for support to facilitate the removal of roadblocks in the change process. Feedback from participants helps administrators to identify problem areas and remodel the change process to facilitate the realization of set goals and objectives.

Prioritize Short Term Goals

The initiatives for realizing change and development may consist of complex and significant objectives. Dividing the ultimate objectives into smaller and achievable portions provides the team a mechanism for focusing on short term goals for the realization of success (Lv & Zhang, 2017). The management uses short-term wins to appreciate and congratulate team members; thus, it creates a sense of participation in the general change process.

Keep Moving

The realization of success during a change process requires the team to observe persistence. The management should dispel discouragement. Instead, the team should practice perseverance and believe in positive outcomes despite the situation. It involves the identification of successes and failures and determining practical approaches to enable the team members to use the information for individual motivation.

Integrate Change

The success of the change process and the realization of improvements in different aspects of the production process allows the team to incorporate the change strategy in other aspects of the firm. It involves the documentation of the change process and its actualization as part of company culture (Lv & Zhang, 2017). The team should remodel operations to facilitate the application of Kotter’s management change model in the entire affairs of the firm.


Lewin’s 3-Step Process: A Case Study of Pemancar

Pemancar is an automotive part production company located in Peninsular Malaysia. In the mid-1980s, ownership of the company changes from several state and federal government agencies to the acquisition by KL Corp. It uses Japanese models to manage the firm. Numerous changes in the trading system based liberalization prompt KL Corp to consider a merger to ensure their survival. The decision sees KL Corp enter in a technical agreement with Nova, global leading automotive industry suppliers from the West in 2001. It increases its shareholding capacity and becomes the major shareholder; hence, it wields more managerial power. The firm recommends strict transitions based on the need to improve production at minimum costs. The suggestions result in panic among the management and the employees. Some of the staff members opt to look for other job openings because of the strictness of Nova based on the need to generate comparable results.


The effectiveness of the change process relies on the ability to initiate adequate preparations. The new plant manager should urge the staff members to observe sufficient preparations for the expected transitions. The plant manager should engage the staff members based on the need to learn about the operations of the firm. He should also use the opportunity to remind the employees about the importance and need for change in the company. He should identify staff members who show signs of resistance towards the suggested change process and urge them to reconsider their position through an in-depth demonstration of the positive impacts of transition on the organization and the staff members. He should show the resisting employees the negative implications of the outlived strategies and their implications on the production process; thus, they hurt the firm. The manager should observe and re-examine the core management ideologies that the firm uses.



The first stage allows the new plant manager the opportunity to examine the company and the impact of the change models in the production process. In the second stage, the plant manager actualizes the change initiatives. The plant manager should use the approach to validate new events, growth, and transitions. The plant manager should show excellent leadership skills based on the need to reassure the employees of the potential positive results from the change process. Some of the employees at Pemancar had opted to resign from their posts because they thought the firm could not restructure and create goods that attract high returns. The departure of the employees would result in the loss of practical skills. The firm would also embark on a journey to recruit new employees; hence, create avenues for more expenses, a production component that the firm endeavors to reduce.


The final stage comes after the acceptance, appreciation, and the implementation of the change process. It depicts the realization of stability in different production processes within the company. The management at Pemancar realizes some of the goals, such as continued production at reduced costs. Most of the employees have accepted and incorporated the change initiatives in their daily work processes. The new plant manager should form a strong support team to ensure the implementation of practical approaches to every aspect of the production process. He should remind the group that the success of the change process does not end at the realization of the set goals and objectives. Instead, he should urge them to implement the approaches after the achievement of the primary targets. Based on the identified success, the team regains a sense of self-confidence that helps the firm to achieve more goals and objectives.



Case Study Interventions

Management change initiatives provide a mechanism for realizing potential growth and development in a commercial venture. However, the effectiveness of the change process relies on the ability of the parties to show a willingness to embrace new approaches (Cummings et al., 2015). The new approach endeavors to identify problem areas and suggest practical measures of intervention to enable high productivity and reduce the cost of production. Nova global organization introduced new approaches to ensure that Pemancar Company focusses on reducing the cost of production while increasing the volume of goods produced over a specified period. Most employees resisted the initiative for change, some of them opting to look for employment opportunities in other firms. Finally, the company had used Japanese management models under the leadership of KL Corp for over two decades. Therefore, suggesting a total overhaul in the management system presents both excitement and fear in the employees.

The success of any intervention approach relies on the ability of the team to engage the active implementation process. The management focuses on the development of policies and initiatives that ensure the realization of company goals and objectives. However, the shop-floor employees execute suggested intervention measures; hence, they contribute towards the success of the process and growth of the firm (Cummings et al., 2015). I will initiate steps to encourage the participation of shop-floor employees at every essential stage of the change model. I will promote the shop-floor staff members to express their opinions on different topics related to the change initiatives. As a result, employees will develop a sense of belonging and ownership in both the change process and the outcomes. Employee participation sets a favorable environment for encouraging team participation as an initiative to help the firm realize its primary goals and objectives.

Managers act as a link between the past, present, and future of a commercial venture. Therefore, new plant managers should endeavor to create a critical understanding of the internal and external affairs of the firm. Understanding the progress of the firm requires that the manager study historical documents to facilitate a more in-depth understanding of the strengths and weaknesses and use the information to charter new avenues for growth and development (Bartunek & Woodman, 2015). As the new plant manager, I will endeavor to learn about the progress of the firm through an in-depth analysis of the management approaches used. The study will help me to determine problem areas and possible intervention measures. Learning about the previous strategies will help me to debunk the reasons for their ineffectiveness in facilitating low-cost production as requested by Nova, the parent company.

Change process models focus on the need to improve different aspects of the production process. Despite the difference in approach mechanisms, the strategies endeavor to promote productivity and reduce the cost incurred in the production process (Bergeron et al., 2017). The previous management at Pemancar Company had expressed satisfaction with the management model they used. However, the acquisition of Pemancar Company by Nova Europe International Corporation resulted in the need for change based on the change in goals and objectives by the new owners. Nova Europe International Corporation suggested new management approaches; hence, it forced the administrators to devise mechanisms of implementing the latest models. As the new plant manager, I will study and identify constructive aspects of the two strategies, blend them to enhance the realization of the original goals by Nova.

The unwillingness to welcome the new approaches pushed some of the employees to consider seeking employment opportunities in other firms. They chose to resign at the expense of practicing patience to see the outcomes of the new approach. Consequently, the firm lost experienced members of the workforce. Staff members in the administrative section showed high levels of openness in welcoming the new strategy in management (Bergeron et al., 2017). Shop-floor employees indicated rigidness because they had refused to stay open and embrace the original method suggested by Nova. As the new plant manager, I will urge the shop-floor employees to practice flexibility in their interaction with the Nova method of management. For example, I will recommend shop-floor employees to take advantage of the moment and learn new skills to help them navigate the new environment. Learning new skills will enable the employees to contribute in the flat, less bureaucratic Nova approach.

KL Corp had relied on using the bureaucratic and hierarchical administrative approach. It gave the employees a strategy to develop a model of communication-based on age. The seniority of the staff members relied on age instead of the academic qualifications of the individual. The approach interfered with communication and response strategies because younger but more qualified employees had trouble getting a commensurate response from older, less skilled members of staff (Drabble & O’Cathain, 2015). However, Nova showed a commitment to restructure the administrative approach used previously in the firm. The corporation introduced a flatter organizational mechanism; thus, it removed hierarchical barriers that hindered effective communication between employees (Lee et al., 2014). As the new plant manager, I will introduce practical measures to facilitate the development of effective communication channels to enable interaction between staff members based on the organizational method in practice.

Intervention measures endeavor to identify and harmonize different aspects of the change strategy to enhance the realization of growth and development. The intervention measures target loopholes that may prevent the firm from meeting the current market climate (Bergeron et al., 2017). The standards offer practical models for involving the employees to change the narrative about sidelining the crucial component of the production process, the shop floors. The measures also enable analysis and comparison of the different organizational approaches to allow the plant manager to develop a blended version based on the need to increase quality and quantity while cutting the cost of production.

Resistance to Diagnostic Models

Change leads to a variation in the primary strategies, norms, and conventions. The dynamism of the business environment necessitates change. However, measures to change different aspects of the organization may lead to resistance from different players. Some of the employees may display a willingness to maintain the status quo (Mathews & Linski, 2016). The task of the plant manager exists in the ability to enable smooth incorporation of identified changes. The employees may display overt or implicit resistance to change; thus, it forces the plant manager to determine the strength and recommend intervention measures.

Logical resistance to change refers to the opposition demonstrated by the employees by taking a lot of time to adapt and embrace new approaches in the organization. For example, the introduction of new machines by Nova results in some of the shop-floor employees taking longer to learn how to use the latest devices. They show an unwillingness to welcome the new methods as a strategy to enhance the process of production (Mathews & Linski, 2016; Lines et al., 2015). The management should state a schedule and limit for learning how to use the new machine by the shop-floor employees. The approach reminds them of the urgency in incorporating the latest devices in the production process.

Psychological resistance occurs because of the fear of the unknown. Employees express mental and psychological dissatisfaction with the new approaches and the ability to secure their future (Lines et al., 2015). Employees at Pemancar Factory had registered a dependence on the primary method used to manage the production process. The old system generated benefits for the firm and its employees. The introduction of a new organizational strategy by Nova threatened the position and future of the employees. The new approach did not guarantee profitability like the initial system; hence, the employees rejected it. Managers should engage the employees to highlight the potential for improvement based on using the new approach in production.


The effectiveness of the change process models relies on the ability to facilitate transitions without interfering with the process of production. Lewin’s 3-step process offers practical steps to analyze organizational strategies and recommend necessary changes. On the other hand, Kotter’s 8-step model enables the management to employ a more in-depth study of the issues that prevent the realization of company goals and objectives. The inevitability of change as a strategy to meet the growing needs and desires of clients prompt firms to identify and implement different approaches to guarantee growth. The manager provides a guide and motivates shop-floor employees based on the potential for improvement associated with the implementation of new strategies in management. The team should endeavor to use productive mechanisms in the running of all the operations of the firm.









Bartunek, J. M., & Woodman, R. W. (2015). Beyond Lewin: Toward a Temporal Approximation of Organization Development and Change. Annual Review of Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior2(1), 157-182.

Bergeron, K., Abdi, S., DeCorby, K., Mensah, G., Rempel, B., & Manson, H. (2017). Theories, models, and frameworks used in capacity building interventions relevant to public health: a systematic review. BMC Public Health17(1).

Cummings, S., Bridgman, T., & Brown, K. G. (2015). Unfreezing change as three steps: Rethinking Kurt Lewin’s legacy for change management. Human Relations69(1), 33-60.

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Drabble, S. J., & O’Cathain, A. (2015). Moving From Randomized Controlled Trials to Mixed Methods Intervention Evaluations. Oxford Handbooks Online.

Hornstein, H. A. (2015). The integration of project management and organizational change management is now a necessity. International Journal of Project Management33(2), 291-298.

Hossan, C. (2015). Applicability of Lewin’s Change Management Theory in Australian Local Government. International Journal of Business and Management10(6).

Lee, J., Kozlenkova, I. V., & Palmatier, R. W. (2014). Structural marketing: using organizational structure to achieve marketing objectives. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science43(1), 73-99.

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